Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is caused by bleeding within the brain. Very few circulating biomarkers are known to be associated with the risk of ICH. Fibroblast growth factor 23 is a bone-derived protein hormone associated with mortality in patients with heart failure. A recent nested case–control study showed that Fibroblast growth factor 23 is associated with risk of intracerebral hemorrhage: Fibroblast growth factor 23 is associated with risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Svensson EH, Söderholm M. Eur J Neurol. 2022 Jan;29(1):114-120. doi: 10.1111/ene.15060. PMID: 34379844.


Background and purpose: Fibroblast growth factor 23 is an osteogenic hormone associated with chronic kidney disease and is an emerging risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases. The association of Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) with stroke is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of FGF23 with incident intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

Methods: This was a nested case-control study of 220 ICH cases and 244 age- and sex-matched controls from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (n = 28,449). Incident ICH cases were ascertained using national registers and classified by bleeding location. Logistic regression was used to study the association of plasma levels of FGF23 with incident ICH, adjusting for potential ICH risk factors. Subgroup analyses were performed for lobar and non-lobar ICH, fatal ICH, ICH with large volume and ICH with poor functional outcome, respectively.

Results: Higher FGF23 levels at baseline were significantly associated with incident ICH. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratio for the association with all ICH was 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.71, p = 0.002) per doubling of FGF23 concentration. For lobar and non-lobar ICH, odds ratios were 1.73 (95% CI 1.04-2.87, p = 0.035) and 2.13 (95% CI 1.32-3.45, p = 0.002), respectively. FGF23 was also significantly associated with fatal ICH, ICH with large volume and ICH with poor functional outcome.

Conclusions: Higher FGF23 was associated with incident ICH in this nested case-control study. Further studies are required to explore whether the association is causal.

Eagle Biosciences’ FGF23 kits listed below:

FGF23 C-Terminal ELISA Assay Kit
MedFrontier Intact FGF23 Assay

If you have any questions about this items or any of our other offerings, contact us here.

TDM Assay Highlight
Eagle Biosciences is proud to highlight our extensive range of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring (TDM) Assays!

Why use TDM Assays?

TDM Assays for biosimilars and biologics are developed primarily for the studies and development of drugs and vaccines in specific therapeutics and therapeutic pathways. They are utilized by pharmaceutical and biopharmaceutical companies, as well as universities and other researchers to aide in a wide variety of research fields.

About TDM Assays

It has long been acknowledged that data on different drug and target species (e.g., free vs total levels of drug target as two possible biomarkers) may satisfy different needs. Depending on the information required for decision-making, the data required and hence the selection of assay (free, total or both) may differ at each phase of drug development.

Free drug levels reflect the availability of the active drug, while the total or bound drug complex is of importance when checking for efficacy or dynamic interactions of the drug, and for other PK/PD assessments. Thus, it is important to understand the information needed at different stages of drug development.

We offer a wide range of products to measure free and partially bound drug, as well as total drug (free, bound, partially bound), and the bound drug complex.

And we’ll be expanding our extensive line in the future!

If you have any questions about our TDM Assay Kits or our other offerings, contact us here.

GA-map Dysbiosis Test

Understanding the Microbiome with Pioneering Research at Genetic Analysis

Anita Jusnes and Christin Casén of Genetic Analysis AS were recently featured on Dr. Ruscio Radio! They discuss with Dr. Ruscio the GA-Map Dysbiosis Test Lx, the only research dysbiosis index for the gut. The conversation covers topics including but not limited to, how the test came to be, the methodology behind the results, how the test has been validated, and how it can be used to distinguish healthy controls from other samples.

Find the full episode and transcript here.

About the GA-map Dysbiosis Test

The human microbiome market is accelerating both in terms of evidence-based research and pharma products launched. The market’s need for a validated microbiome test is growing. Genetic Analysis AS is at the forefront of this development with the GA-map Dysbiosis Test. The unique, GA-map® Dysbiosis Test, detects and characterizes imbalance in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) in human fecal samples. All pre-processing of the data is done by the GA-map® Dysbiosis Test analyze software. Reports are automatically generated on the dysbiosis index (DI) and the bacteria abundance. The DI can be customized to your needs. Based on a deviation from a normal reference population, a measure of bacteria abundances and deviations to the references are calculated. The results are presented in an easy to interpret report form, containing the 48 preselected bacteria markers.

Additionally, Genetic Analysis has developed a fecal COVID-19 test that is performed on the same GA-map platform and is an important research tool in the analysis of an individual’s COVID-19 status.

If you have any questions about the GA-map Dysbiosis Test Lx or any of our other offerings, contact us here.

A recent study shows a strong association between the development of hyperphosphatemia in dogs with chronic kidney disease and increased serum levels of fibroblastic growth factor-23 (FGF-23)

Miyakawa H, Hsu H-H, Ogawa M, Akabane R, Miyagawa Y, Takemura N. Association between serum fibroblast growth factor-23 concentration and development of hyperphosphatemia in normophosphatemic dogs with chronic kidney disease. J Vet Intern Med. 2021;35(5):2296-2305. Full Text.


Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is a common, irreversible, and progressive disease in dogs. In patients with CKD, mineral metabolism disorders such as hyperphosphatemia, renal hyperparathyroidism, and decreased calcitriol synthesis also occur because of impaired renal function. These disorders are termed CKD—mineral and bone disorder (MBD). Hyperphosphatemia (abnormally high serum phosphate levels) is known to be a prognostic factor for shorter survival time in dogs with CKD.

The role of FGF-23 in CKD

Fibroblast growth factor-23 is released from osteocytes in response to increased serum phosphorus and calcitriol concentrations and promotes phosphate excretion into the urine by downregulation of the sodium-phosphate co-transporter in renal proximal tubular cells and inhibition of calcitriol synthesis. Fibroblast growth factor-23 acts by binding to the FGF receptor-α-klotho complex.13 In humans, cats, and dogs with CKD, circulating FGF-23 concentrations have been shown to increase in the advanced CKD stages. Increased FGF-23 concentration in CKD patients is associated with various mechanisms, such as a decreased clearance of FGF-23 because of decreasing glomerular filtration rate (GFR), compensation for the accumulation of phosphate in the body, and compensation for decreased klotho protein concentrations. Blood FGF-23 concentrations in dogs with CKD have been shown to become increased earlier than serum phosphorous concentrations therefore, FGF-23 has been noted as an early marker of CKD-MBD.

Researchers hypothesized that FGF-23 predicts development of hyperphosphatemia in normophosphatemic dogs with CKD. If correct, FGF-23 may be a useful marker of when to initiate a phosphate-restricted diet to prevent the development of hyperphosphatemia.

About the MedFrontier Intact FGF23 Assay

  • low sample volume required – only 20ul
  • ONLY assay that measures the full-length active form (intact form) of FGF23
  • superior dynamic range of 10-3000 pg/uL
  • CLEIA technology

The MedFrontier Intact FGF23 Assay was developed and manufactured by Minaris Medical.

IF you have any questions about this product or any of our other products, contact us here.

iLite Assay Ready Cells Product Spotlight

One of our supplier’s was recently featured in an editorial by Select Science! Svar Life Sciences has been working closely with Dr. Erik Tillman at Akero Therapeutics. Tillman and his team are developing a multi-modal drug that could help treat the drivers of non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), a severe form of non-alcoholic related fatty liver disease (NAFLD) that has increased risk for cardiovascular and liver related morbidity and mortality. Him and his team have been working with Svar to create custom iLite assay-ready cells for the cell-based assays that have become a key role in the work Tillman and his teammates perform daily.

“The assay-ready cells have been much more robust and the results have been more reproducible than other cell-based assays that we had tried to use or develop in the past,” says Tillman. “Using the assay-ready cells from Svar, we understand how the cells have been made and characterized, and we are confident in how the cells are going to perform from one vial to the next, and from one lot to the next. Svar’s expertise in the engineering of the cell system and our results thus far have given us the confidence to broaden our use of the assay-ready cells.”

Click here to read the full editorial about Dr. Tillman’s research and the role of Svar’s iLite assay-ready cells.

If you have any questions about Svar’s iLite Assay Ready Cells or our other offerings contact us here.

RANKL Regulates Male Reproductive Function
Infertility is a frequent problem affecting up to 26% of all couples globally. Impaired semen quality is responsible for approximately 50% of all cases, but no treatment options exist. This current study provides insights into a yet unrecognized regulatory role of RANKL in male reproductive function.


Infertile men have few treatment options. Here, we demonstrate that the transmembrane receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) signaling system is active in mouse and human testis. RANKL is highly expressed in Sertoli cells and signals through RANK, expressed in most germ cells, whereas the RANKL-inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG) is expressed in germ and peritubular cells. OPG treatment increases wild-type mouse sperm counts, and mice with global or Sertoli-specific genetic suppression of Rankl have increased male fertility and sperm counts. Moreover, RANKL levels in seminal fluid are high and distinguishes normal from infertile men with higher specificity than total sperm count. In infertile men, one dose of Denosumab decreases RANKL seminal fluid concentration and increases serum Inhibin-B and anti-Müllerian-hormone levels, but semen quality only in a subgroup. This translational study suggests that RANKL is a regulator of male reproductive function, however, predictive biomarkers for treatment-outcome requires further investigation in placebo-controlled studies.

Find the full text here.

Eagle Biosciences offers an ELISA kit that can measure soluble RANKL and OPG in serum and seminal fluid. These kits are reliable and highly sensitive. For more information about these kits or our other offerings, contact us here.

Free soluble RANKL ELISA Assay Kit
Osteoprotegerin ELISA Assay Kit

Eagle Biosciences Announces Agreement with Genetic Analysis

Eagle Biosciences Announces Agreement with
Genetic Analysis AS for Distribution in North America

Eagle Biosciences, Inc., a North American distributor of assay kits and antibodies, recently announced a distribution agreement with Genetic Analysis AS, a Norwegian molecular diagnostics company. The focus of the collaboration is on the unique, patented GA-map® Dysbiosis Test which detects and characterizes imbalance in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) in human fecal samples. Additionally, Genetic Analysis has developed a fecal COVID-19 test that is performed on the same GA-map platform and is an important research tool in the analysis of an individual’s COVID-19 status.

Genetic Analysis (GA) is a molecular diagnostics company with a core focus of providing innovative tools for studying the human microbiome. GA has developed and launched the GA-map platform for routine gut microbiome research and analysis. The first test on this groundbreaking platform is the GA-map Dysbiosis Test. The Dysbiosis Test is the first documented test to identify and characterize the gut microbiota composition. The GA-map Test platform is not based on sequencing but is a targeted probe-based assay. The precise and targeted approach makes it an easy plug and play platform as long as the targets are identified. GA’s vision is to become the company that standardizes gut microbiota testing worldwide.

“We are looking forward to working with Genetic Analysis and the opportunity to bring their products to labs in the US and Canada.”, states Eagle Biosciences President Dan Keefe. “Genetic Analysis has been a pioneer in the microbiota industry and has over ten years of experience in the field. We are especially excited about their GA-map® Dysbiosis Test because it is the first standardized, off-the-shelf biome mapping kit and can be run in any PCR lab.”

If you have any questions about the GA-map® test platform or any of Eagle Biosciences products, please contact us here.

About Genetic Analysis AS

Genetic Analysis AS (GA) is a science-based diagnostic company and pioneer in the human microbiome field with more than 10 years of expertise in research and product development. The unique GA-map® platform is based on a pre-targeted multiplex approach specialized for simultaneous analysis of a large number of bacteria in one reaction. The test results are generated by utilizing the clinically validated cutting edge GA-map® software algorithm. This enables immediate results without the need of further bioinformatics work. GA’s mission is to become the leading company for standardized gut microbiota testing worldwide, and GA is committed to help unlocking and restoring the human microbiome through its state-of-the-art technology. GA holds 22 highly qualified employees with relevant scientific backgrounds and with competence in bioinformatics, molecular biology, and bioengineering.

For more information about Genetic Analysis, click here.

About Eagle Biosciences, Inc.

Since 2010, Eagle Biosciences has been providing the highest quality and best value immunoassays, antibodies, and proteins available on the market. There are many suppliers of ELISAs and other assays and hundreds of thousands of products to choose from, but EagleBio only offers products that deliver the maximum level of performance and provide reliable and trusted results.

For more information about Eagle Biosciences, Inc., click here.

Studies show that Angiopoietin-2 is a strong predictor in COVID-19 patients

Two research teams find that increased levels of the proinflammatory cytokine Angiopoietin-2 predicts transfer to the ICU and is responsible for hypercoagulation observed in critically ill COVID-patients.


Angiopoietin-2 as a marker of endothelial activation is a good predictor factor for intensive care unit admission of COVID-19 patients. Smadja DM et al., Angiogenesis, 2020;1-10. Full text

Elevated Angiopoietin-2 inhibits thrombomodulin-mediated anticoagulation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Hultstrom M et al., MedRxiv preprint server, 2021. Full text

Click here for a summary of the findings.


SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the coronavirus respiratory disease COVID-19. It has a diverse range of symptoms and may cause severe illness, in particular in patients with cardiovascular risk factors (1).

Endothelial damage and inflammation in SARS-CoV-2 infection

The inflammatory cytokine storm occurring in COVID-19 patients, leads to the recruitment of leukocytes which damage the capillary endothelium. The endothelial damage and inflammation in several organs in SARS-CoV-2 infection is a direct consequence of viral involvement and of the host inflammatory response (2).
Despite the routine thrombosis prophylaxis as standard of care treatment, the major COVID-19 complication is the hyperactivation of the coagulation system indicating a poor prognosis among COVID-19 patients in intensive care (3).

Angiopoietin-2 (ANG2) is a soluble marker of endothelial activation

Angiopoietin-2 is an angiogenesis regulator that can be rapidly released by the activated endothelium upon thrombin or inflammatory cytokines. ANG2 induces inflammation and vascular hyperpermeability and correlates with adverse outcomes in several critical care syndromes (4, 5).

Angiopoietin-2 is a crucial factor to predict transfer to the ICU

In COVID-19 patients, ANG2 was recently reported by Smadja and colleagues to be a relevant factor to predict transfer to the ICU as it was associated with poor lung compliance (6). Thus, showing that endothelial activation reinforces the hypothesis of a COVID-19-associated microvascular dysfunction.

Angiopoietin-2 inhibits anticoagulation in critically ill COVID-19 patients

Hulstrom and colleagues recently demonstrated that ANG2 levels in critically ill COVID-19 patients correlate with disease severity, hypercoagulation, and mortality. In addition, the researchers provided novel in vivo evidence for a direct role for ANG2 in coagulation through binding to and inhibition of thrombomodulin-mediated anticoagulation. The scientists suggest that inhibition of ANG2 might be beneficial for treating critically ill COVID-19 patients, as well as other patients with hypercoagulation (7).

About the Angiopoietin ELISA

  • Low sample volume – only 10µl needed
  • Assay range optimized for clinical samples
  • Ready to use standards and 2 controls included
  • Highly specific epitope mapped capture and detection antibodies

The human Angiopoietin-2 ELISA kit was developed and manufactured by Biomedica


  1. Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study. Zhou F et al., Lancet, 2020; 395(10229):1054-1062.
  2. Endotheliitis in COVID-19. Varga S. Der Pathologe, 2020; 41(Suppl 2):99-102.
  3. COVID-19 and coagulation: bleeding and thrombotic manifestations of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Al-Samkari H et al., Blood, 2020:136, 489-500.
    Role of Angiopoietin-2 in Vascular Physiology and Pathophysiology. Akwii RG et al., Cells, 2019; 8(5): 471.
  4. Circulating angiopoietin-2 and the risk of mortality in patients with acute respiratory distress syndrome: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 10 prospective cohort studies. Li F et al., Therapeutic advances in respiratory disease, 2020; 14, 1753466620905274.
  5. Angiopoietin-2 as a marker of endothelial activation is a good predictor factor for intensive care unit admission of COVID-19 patients. Smadja DM et al., Angiogenesis, 2020;1-10.
  6. Elevated Angiopoietin-2 inhibits thrombomodulin-mediated anticoagulation in critically ill COVID-19 patients. Hultstrom M et al., MedRxiv preprint server, 2021.

Sclerostin expression in trabecular bone is down-regulated by osteoclasts

Scientific Reports

Bone tissues have trabecular bone with a high bone turnover rate and cortical bone with a low turnover. Expression of sclerostin by osteocytes works to inhibit bone formation. A study performed recently aimed to evaluate the relationship between the secretion of sclerostin by osteocytes and the secretion of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF) by osteoclasts. It was found that LIF secretion effectively suppresses sclerostin expression and promotes bone formation.

Read the full article here.

Eagle Biosciences offers a sensitive and reliable assay for the detection of sclerostin in serum and plasma samples:

Sclerostin ELISA Assay Kit

Mouse LIF ELISA Assay Kit

Human LIFR ELISA Assay Kit

Free Soluble RANKL ELISA Assay Kit

If you are looking for any other specific Bone Monitoring related products or if you have questions about our offerings, contact us here.

Biomarker of urinary 5-HIAA as a valuable predictor of acute appendicitis

Science Direct

Acute appendicitis is one of the most common causes of severe acute abdominal pain globally. Increased levels of 5-Hydroxyindole acetic acid (5-HIAA), a metabolite of serotonin, in urine has been associated with acute appendicitis due to the densely packed serotonin-containing cells in the appendix. A study performed recently aimed to evaluate and determine the significance of 5-HIAA as a diagnostic marker.

Read the full article here.

Eagle Biosciences offers a sensitive and reliable assay for the detection of 5-HIAA in urine samples:

5-HIAA ELISA Assay Kit

Serotonin ELISA Assay Kit

Serotonin Ultrasensitive ELISA Assay Kit

If you are looking for any other specific 5-HIAA related product or if you have questions about our offerings, contact us here.