Studies Show that Neuropilin-1 Could Play Role in Transmission of COVID-19

Eagle News

Two Independent Research Teams Find Possible Link Between Neuropilin-1 and SARS-CoV-2 Transmission

Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) is an essential transmembrane cell surface receptor acting primarily as a co-receptor for various ligands (i.e. VEGF, Semaphorins). Due to alternative splicing or shedding, the extracellular region can be released into circulation as soluble Neuropilin-1. NRP1 functions in many key biological processes including the neuronal, cardiovascular and the immune system. The virus SARS-CoV-2 is the causative agent of the coronavirus disease COVID-19 NRP1 is expressed in multiple cell types in the body but occurs primarily on cells in the lung, nose and brain (i.e. respiratory and olfactory epithelium as well as in the CNS). SARS CoV 2 enters the host cells by its spike proteins mainly through its binding to the angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2).

Click here for summary of findings.

Studies:

Neuropilin-1 facilitates SARS-CoV-2 cell entry and provides a possible pathway into the central nervous system. Cantuti-Castelvetri L et al., Science 13 Nov, 2020; Vol. 370, Issue 6518, pp. 856-860. Full publication.

Neuropilin-1 is a host factor for SARS-CoV-2 infection. Daly JL et al., Science, 13 Nov 2020; Vol. 370, Issue 6518, pp. 861-865. Full publication.

About the Neuropilin-1 ELISA:

  • Only assay that measures free and ligand bound soluble NRP1
  • Low sample volume – only 10µl needed
  • Highly specific using epitope mapped antibodies
  • Rigorously validated according to international guidelines

Contact us for more information about this or our other SARS-CoV-2 related products.

Eagle Biosciences is now offering a new Human VEGF ELISA Kit from Biomedica. The VEGF ELISA Assay Kit is intended for the quantitative determination of human VEGF in serum, EDTA plasma, and citrate plasma.

VEGF ELISA Highlights:

  • DAY Test – results in 4.5 h
  • High sensitivity – measurable values in both serum and plasma
  • RELIABLE- rigorously validated according to FDA/ICH/EMA guidelines
  • READY to use – calibrators and controls included
  • EXCELLENT correlation to existing methods
  • SMALL sample size – only 10µl sample / well required

Areas of interest:

  • Cancer
  • Metabolic disease (diabetes and diabetic kidney disease, diabetic retinopathy, obesity)
  • Retinal Diseases
  • Autoimmune & inflammatory disease (rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis)
  • Heart and cardiovascular disease
  • Skeletal bone formation and bone repair

About VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or VEGF-A), is a growth hormone secreted by endothelial cells, fi broblasts, smooth muscle cells, platelets, macrophages, and many other cell types. It belongs to the cysteine-knot growth factor superfamily (1) and has a molecular weight of about 40 kDa. Currently, 17 different VEGF isoforms have been described to be expressed from one single gene. They are produced by alternative promoter usage/initiation or alternative splicing/proteolysis after protein translation. The N-terminal region is responsible for receptor binding and conserved among all VEGF isoforms. In contrast, residues of the C-terminus differ between isoforms and determine protein length and properties: binding to co-receptor Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) or to extracellular matrix (ECM), agonist/antagonist of angiogenesis. Most isoforms result from the common transcripts: VEGF111, VEGF121, VEGF145, VEGF165, VEGF189 and VEGF206. Additionally, a third VEGF variant (VEGFAx), that demonstrates pro- and anti-apoptotic properties, was described. Thus, vascularization is tightly controlled by the balance of various splice variants, their availability and concentration, whereas isoforms linked to the ECM constitute a reservoir of VEGF that can quickly be shed to circulating forms. One of the most potent pro-angiogenic isoforms is VEGF165a. After secretion, 50-70% of VEGF165a is attached to the extracellular matrix (via heparin binding site), the rest is freely diffusible. It is the most abundant isoform and enhances signaling over the VEGFR2 receptor by additionally binding to its co-receptor Neuropilin-1. VEGF A isoforms are glycosylated, homodimeric proteins. Two anti-parallel monomers are linked by intermolecular disulfide bonds whereas eight cysteine residues form a knot-like structure at one end of each monomer. However, heterodimerization with PLGF has been described as well.

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Eagle Biosciences Diagomix

Eagle Biosciences, Inc. is pleased to partner with New York based Diagomix to offer a new line of monoclonal antibodies.

About Diagomix

Diagomix develops and manufactures antibodies, products for immunohistochemistry, ELISA, lateral flow assays and other antibody-based tests. Founded by a team of biomedical professionals, they offer a wide range of biochemical product development services. Their areas of focus include immunohistochemical diagnostics, companion diagnostics, food safety, and hapten detection.

New Product Offerings

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CHID1 Clone 3D4
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD31 Antibody Clone PBM-6B3
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PCNA Antibody Clone Р60
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PCNA Antibody Clone Р56
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibody Clone 2H11-D5
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PSA Antibody Clone P1
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-MLH1 Antibody Clone PBM-5A6
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-EpCAM Antibody Clone VU-1D9
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Desmin Antibody Clone PBM-3B4
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Pan Cytokeratin Antibody Clone C11
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Cytokeratin 5 Antibody Clone PBM-2C6
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD10 Antibody Clone PBM-1E2
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Cytokeratin 18 Antibody Clone DC-10
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-AMACR Antibody Clone PBM-G8
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-p53 Antibody Clone BP-53-12
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-ER Antibody Clone PBM-1H7
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Ki67 Antibody Clone PBM-20G3

Contact us for more information about Diagomix products.

Eagle News

Immune Monitoring COVID-19

Cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 are only visible to CD8+ T cell after virus proteins have been processed and presented by MHC class I molecules – and only then are the CD8+ T cell able to eradicate the infection. While antibodies against the COVID-19 virus are important to prevent or minimize infection, CD8+ T cells are responsible for clearing the virus from the body. Hence, the identification of peptides being presented by MHC class I is essential to:

  • Design potent vaccines eliciting a persistent response and
  • Using MHC class I tetramers to monitor cellular immune responses
  • Assessments of vaccine induced cellular immunity

immunAware’s MHC class I easYmers allow researchers pursuing novel COVID-19 vaccines to generate tetramers and monitor immune responses. In the current pandemic scenario it is essential not to only focus on a few ALA allotypes; rather it is essential to be able to monitor as many allotypes as possible to ensure a novel vaccine targets a broad range of allotypes. Our portfolio of easYmers cover 34 HLA allotypes (HLA-A,-B,-C) which is further supplemented by HLA molecules available for custom tetramer production, bringing the number of available allotypes up to 81. Thus, our range of allotypes ensures a coverage to a 2% frequency in the caucasian population.

The easYmer reagents can also be used to validate the binding of predicted epitopes to further stratify the selection of potential COVID-19 vaccine targets.

As the US distributor for immunAware, Eagle Biosciences offer their extensive catalog of easYmer and MHC tetramer products, including:
easYmer HLA-C*07:02 MHC Tetramers Kit
HLA-A*29:02 (WYMWLGARY) Class I Tetramer
easYmer HLA-B*15:01 MHC Tetramers Kit

See our full list of immunAware products here. If you have questions or for assistance with a specific product, please contact us.

Alzheimer’s targets brain cells that help people stay awake

Science News

New Alzheimer’s disease research is providing valuable insight into the cause of the drowsiness associated with dementias. A study performed in a neuropathology lab at UC San Francisco found the brain stem and hypothalamus to be packed with tau protein. The brain stem and hypothalamus oversee several nervous system functions, including keeping people awake and focused. Tau forms “tangles” inside of nerve cells and hinder them from performing necessary functions. In studying three areas of theses structures that help keep people awake, researchers found over 70 percent of the nerve cells were destroyed by tau. These findings will help to drive a greater focus on the brain stem in dementia and Alzheimers research.

Read the full article here.

Eagle Biosciences offers a sensitive and reliable assay for detection of tau in cell culture supernatant, serum, cell culture extracts, plasma, cerebral spinal fluid. We also offer several Tau monomer and preformed fibril products.

Tau ELISA Assay Kit

Active Human Recombinant Tau (K18), P301L mutant Protein Monomer

Active Human Recombinant Tau441 (2N4R) mutant Protein Monomer

Active Human Recombinant Tau (K18), P301L mutant PPF

Active Human Recombinant Tau441 (2N4R), P301S mutant PPF

If you are looking for a specific tau protein related product or if you have questions about our offerings, contact us here.

Eagle Biosciences will be at ASN Kidney Week in Washington, DC!

ASN Kidney Week is this week, Thursday, November 7 to Sunday, November 10, at the Walter E. Washington Convention Center. Stop by booth #2005 to learn more about Vanin-1, Klotho, Intact FGF23 and other assays that could help you with your kidney related research! We’ll be there to answer any questions you may have, or stop and say hi! We love seeing our customers!


Product Highlights

Vanin-1: Eagle Bio has two new Vanin-1 ELISA Kits. Vanin-1 is an early biomarker of renal tubular damage in drug-induced acute kidney injury, obstructive nephropathy, and diabetic nephropathy.

FluoBolt Klotho: This newest addition to our FluoBolt line of fluorescence immunoassays allows for highly sensitive measurement of Klotho, a critical biomarker for chronic kidney disease and failure, renal- and hepatocellular carcinomas, osteoporosis or cardiovascular diseases.

Intact FGF23: This CLEIA ELISA is a unique and highly accurate assay for the measurement of FGF23, which has been linked to impaired renal function.


Contact us for more information about these products.

What is Vanin-1?

Vanin-1 is an epithelial ectoenzyme activating the conversion of pantetheine into pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and cysteamine and thus is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation.

Why is Vanin-1 important?

The highest levels of Vanin-1 expression is assigned to renal tubular epithelial cells. Hence, Vanin-1 released from renal cells can be detected in the urine. Pre-clinical and clinical studies demonstrate that Vanin-1 is an early biomarker of renal tubular damage in drug-induced acute kidney injury, obstructive nephropathy, and diabetic nephropathy. In fact, Vanin-1 has as superior predictive value for acute kidney injury than established markers KIM-1, NGAL, or NAG .

Comparison of human urine Vanin-1 values in apparently healthy individuals and individuals with kidney disease:

Areas of Interest:

  • Acute kidney injury
  • Diabetic nephropathy
  • Drug-induced acute kidney injury
  • Obstructive nephropathy

Assay Highlights:

  • Optimized for human urine samples
  • Highly SPECIFIC and DEFINED characterized antibodies
  • RELIABLE rigorously validated according to FDA guidelines​
  • QUICK one-step ELISA

Eagle Biosciences offers the first fully validated human Vanin-1 assays in a simple-to-use ELISA:

Human Vanin-1 (urine) ELISA Assay Kit

Mouse/Rat Vanin-1 ELISA Kit

Contact us for more information about our Vanin-1 related assay kits.


Eagle Biosciences will be at ASN Kidney Week in Washington, DC!

Stop by booth #2005 to learn more about Vanin-1, Klotho, Intact FGF23 and other assays that could help you with your kidney related research! We’ll be there to answer any questions you may have, or stop and say hi! We love seeing our customers!

The Eagle Biosciences MedFrontier FGF23 (Human Intact FGF23) CLEIA ELISA Assay was used in a recently published study looking at the association between FGF23 levels and major adverse cardiovascular events (MACE) and mortality in patients with type 2 diabetes and normal or mildly impaired kidney function.

FGF23 is an endocrine hormone involved in vitamin D metabolism and phosphorous level regulation. Previous studies have shown a link between insulin resistance and an increase in FGF23, which researchers believe affects renal phosphorous handling and leads to a higher risk of MACE.

The study did find evidence of a connection with FGF23 levels and an increased risk of MACE or mortality in participating patients.

Read more about this study here.

Contact us for more information about this kit.

Study Citation:
Fibroblast Growth Factor 23 and Mortality in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes and Normal or Mildly Impaired Kidney Function
Stanley M.H. Yeung, S. Heleen Binnenmars, Christina M. Gant, Gerjan Navis, Ron T. Gansevoort, Stephan J.L. Bakker, Martin H. de Borst, Gozewijn D. Laverman
Diabetes Care Sep 2019, dc190528; DOI: 10.2337/dc19-0528

Eagle Biosciences proudly offers a broad range of products in our extensive catalog. In addition to the well known ELISA format, we offer several assay kits in a Chemiluminescent Enzyme Immunoassay (CLEIA) format.

ELISA vs. CLEIA

ELISAs use antibodies to detect the presence of a protein in a liquid sample. In the most common form, antigens are applied to a stable surface (usually a microtiter plate). Then the corresponding antibody, linked with an enzyme, is added to form a complex. Finally, the enzyme’s substrate is added, which produces a measurable reaction, usually in the form of a color change.

CLEIAs also utilize antibody-enzyme reactions, but offer a higher level of sensitivity due use of chemiluminescence rather than colorimetric absorbance or fluorescence. Chemiluminescence allows detection of trace amounts of analytes because samples typically have little to no background interference. These reactions are also easily measured using a photomultiplier or photodiode. These types of kits are increasing in popularity due to their increased sensitivity, specificity, reliability, and reproducibility.

Our available CLEIA/CLIA kits

GFAP (Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protein) CLIA Assay Kit
MedFrontier FGF23 (Human Intact FGF23) CLEIA ELISA Assay

Contact us if you are looking for a specific CLEIA or if you have questions about any of our products.

Eagle Biosciences is excited to announce the addition of several new ELISA assay kits. These new assays cover a broad range of immunology research areas, including autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer immunology. The majority of these kits are available in 1×96 and 2×96 well sizes.

New Kits:
Human Azurocidin ELISA Kit
Human BPI ELISA Kit
Human C3a ELISA Kit
Human C3c ELISA Kit
Human C5a ELISA Kit
Human Coagulation Factor XII ELISA Kit
Human Ficolin-1 ELISA Kit
Human Ficolin-2 ELISA Kit
Human Ficolin-3 ELISA Kit
Human gC1qR ELISA Kit
Mouse H-FABP ELISA Kit
Human L-FABP ELISA Kit
Human MAp44 ELISA Kit
Human MBL ELISA Kit
Mouse MBL-A ELISA Kit
Mouse MBL-C ELISA Kit
Competitive MGO ELISA Kit
LBP ELISA Kit
Mouse MPO ELISA Kit
Rat MPO ELISA Kit
Human Pentraxin 3 ELISA Kit
Human Proteinase 3 ELISA Kit
Human SAP ELISA Kit
Human Soluble Mannose Receptor ELISA Kit
Human sTNF-RII ELISA Kit
Human sTREM-1 ELISA Kit
Human TRACP5a ELISA Kit

Contact us for more information about our new products.