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Eagle Biosciences is now offering a new Human VEGF ELISA Kit from Biomedica. The VEGF ELISA Assay Kit is intended for the quantitative determination of human VEGF in serum, EDTA plasma, and citrate plasma.

VEGF ELISA Highlights:

  • DAY Test – results in 4.5 h
  • High sensitivity – measurable values in both serum and plasma
  • RELIABLE- rigorously validated according to FDA/ICH/EMA guidelines
  • READY to use – calibrators and controls included
  • EXCELLENT correlation to existing methods
  • SMALL sample size – only 10µl sample / well required

Areas of interest:

  • Cancer
  • Metabolic disease (diabetes and diabetic kidney disease, diabetic retinopathy, obesity)
  • Retinal Diseases
  • Autoimmune & inflammatory disease (rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, psoriatic arthritis)
  • Heart and cardiovascular disease
  • Skeletal bone formation and bone repair

About VEGF

Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or VEGF-A), is a growth hormone secreted by endothelial cells, fi broblasts, smooth muscle cells, platelets, macrophages, and many other cell types. It belongs to the cysteine-knot growth factor superfamily (1) and has a molecular weight of about 40 kDa. Currently, 17 different VEGF isoforms have been described to be expressed from one single gene. They are produced by alternative promoter usage/initiation or alternative splicing/proteolysis after protein translation. The N-terminal region is responsible for receptor binding and conserved among all VEGF isoforms. In contrast, residues of the C-terminus differ between isoforms and determine protein length and properties: binding to co-receptor Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) or to extracellular matrix (ECM), agonist/antagonist of angiogenesis. Most isoforms result from the common transcripts: VEGF111, VEGF121, VEGF145, VEGF165, VEGF189 and VEGF206. Additionally, a third VEGF variant (VEGFAx), that demonstrates pro- and anti-apoptotic properties, was described. Thus, vascularization is tightly controlled by the balance of various splice variants, their availability and concentration, whereas isoforms linked to the ECM constitute a reservoir of VEGF that can quickly be shed to circulating forms. One of the most potent pro-angiogenic isoforms is VEGF165a. After secretion, 50-70% of VEGF165a is attached to the extracellular matrix (via heparin binding site), the rest is freely diffusible. It is the most abundant isoform and enhances signaling over the VEGFR2 receptor by additionally binding to its co-receptor Neuropilin-1. VEGF A isoforms are glycosylated, homodimeric proteins. Two anti-parallel monomers are linked by intermolecular disulfide bonds whereas eight cysteine residues form a knot-like structure at one end of each monomer. However, heterodimerization with PLGF has been described as well.

Contact us for more information about this product.

Eagle Biosciences, Inc. is pleased to partner with New York based Diagomix to offer a new line of monoclonal antibodies.

About Diagomix

Diagomix develops and manufactures antibodies, products for immunohistochemistry, ELISA, lateral flow assays and other antibody-based tests. Founded by a team of biomedical professionals, they offer a wide range of biochemical product development services. Their areas of focus include immunohistochemical diagnostics, companion diagnostics, food safety, and hapten detection.

New Product Offerings

Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CHID1 Clone 3D4
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD31 Antibody Clone PBM-6B3
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PCNA Antibody Clone Р60
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PCNA Antibody Clone Р56
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Thyroglobulin Antibody Clone 2H11-D5
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-PSA Antibody Clone P1
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-MLH1 Antibody Clone PBM-5A6
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-EpCAM Antibody Clone VU-1D9
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Desmin Antibody Clone PBM-3B4
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Pan Cytokeratin Antibody Clone C11
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Cytokeratin 5 Antibody Clone PBM-2C6
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-CD10 Antibody Clone PBM-1E2
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Cytokeratin 18 Antibody Clone DC-10
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-AMACR Antibody Clone PBM-G8
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-p53 Antibody Clone BP-53-12
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-ER Antibody Clone PBM-1H7
Mouse Monoclonal Anti-Ki67 Antibody Clone PBM-20G3

Contact us for more information about Diagomix products.

LEUCINE-RICH ALPHA-2-GLYCOPROTEIN (LRG) ELISA Now Available!

Austrian supplier Biomedica has released a new ELISA, the Leucine-Rich Alpha-2-Glycoprotein or LRG for short. The LRG ELISA Assay kit is intended for the quantitative determination of human LRG in serum, EDTA plasma, heparin plasma, and citrate plasma.

Human LRG ELISA highlights:

Size: 1×96 wells
Sensitivity: 0.26 ng/ml
Standard Range: 0 – 64 ng/ml
Incubation Time: 3.5 hours
Sample Type: Serum, Plasma
Sample Size: 100 µl pre-diluted sample / well (5 µl sample)

About LRG

LRG (leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein) is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 38.2 kDa. It is encoded by the human gene LRG-1 which is mapped on chromosome 19 at the cytogenetic band 19p13.3. The protein LRG (or also named LRG1) runs at approximately 50 kDa under reducing conditions, as it contains a carbohydrate content of 23%. LRG is the founding member of the family of leucine-rich repeat proteins. The mature protein consists of 312 amino acids, from Val36 to Gln347, with a leucine content of 66 amino acids. LRG is folded to eight leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains of 22 amino acid length, and a C-terminal LRRCT domain with 49 amino acid length. Human LRG shows 62.5% sequence identity with mouse LRG, and 60.7% with rat LRG.

LRG binds to the TGFβ accessory receptor endoglin, and in the presence of TGFβ1 this leads to the induction of the TβRII-ALK1-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway. TGFβ1 therefore promotes binding of LRG to the proangiogenic ALK1 but inhibits the interaction with angiostatic ALK5. Induced signaling leads to endothelial cell proliferation and blood vessel outgrowth.

Like many other family members of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family, LRG has multiple binding partners. LRG directly interacts with the mitochondrial electron transfer protein cytochrome c, whereas the physiological relevance of this interaction is not yet known. LRG further binds to TGFβ1, the most frequently expressed TGFβ isoform.

The tissue distribution of LRG varies, with high-level expression in the liver, lower expression in the heart, and minimal expression in spleen and lung. LRG is expressed during hematopoiesis. It plays a role in the innate immune system as it is upregulated during neutrophil differentiation; LRG is packed into peroxidase-negative granules of human neutrophils and then secreted upon activation to modulate the microenvironment. Differential expression of LRG is further associated with certain carcinomas, neurodegenerative disease, aging or autoimmune disease. In addition, studies have demonstrated an association between cardiac remodeling (hypertrophy, fibrosis, abnormal vasculature, heart failure) and reduced expression of LRG.

LRG is involved in cell proliferation and immune response, in cell migration, neovascularization and apoptosis. It is a proangiogenic factor which is involved in the regulation of the TGFβ signaling pathway. Up-regulation of LRG is described in response to acute phase response in hepatocytes.

LRG is potentially a biomarker for a variety of diseases e.g. as inflammatory biomarker for autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Numerous groups have shown that LRG is increased in various immune-related diseases such as psoriasis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Kawasaki disease, appendicitis, and cancers, indicating that LRG elevation is not only limited to autoimmune diseases. In addition, LRG may serve as a biomarker for several other disease conditions such as heart failure, and diabetes-related complications. Plasma Leucine-Rich α-2-Glycoprotein has also been demonstrated to predict cardiovascular disease risk in end-stage renal disease. Leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein is highly expressed in the brain and it is possible to distinguish idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) from other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease by measuring LRG in cerebrospinal fluid.

To learn more about this product click here or contact us with questions

Epitope Diagnostics Inc. New COVID-19 IgG and IgM ELISA Featured in Icelandic Study on Humans Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 Exposure

A study has recently been published in the New England Journal of Medicine titled Humoral Immune Response to SARS-CoV-2 in Iceland by D.F. Gudbjartsson, et. al. This study takes a look at the semi-long term immune response of the COVID-19 respiratory infection. 30,576 patient samples were tested for both IgG and IgM antibodies using both q-PCR and ELISA methods. The ELISA’s used in this study were the Coronavirus COVID-19 IgG ELISA Assay and Coronavirus COVID-19 IgM ELISA Assay Kit offered by Eagle Biosciences. The results of this study showed that IgM anti-N antibody levels increased rapidly soon after diagnosis and then fell rapidly and were generally not detected after 2 months. IgG anti-N and anti-S1 antibody levels increased during the first 6 weeks after diagnosis and then decreased slightly, indicating that antiviral antibodies against SERS-CoV-2 did not decline within 4 months after diagnosis. With respect to clinical characteristics, antibody levels were most strongly associated with hospitalization and clinical severity, followed by clinical symptoms such as fever, maximum temperature reading, cough, and loss of appetite. Severity of these individual symptoms, with the exception of loss of energy, was associated with higher antibody levels.

More research still needs to be conducted to understand the full immune response over time. However, this is a great step in the development of how this virus works and how the world will be able to overcome it.

To learn more and read the full publication, click here.

To view Eagle Biosciencs extensive selection of SARS-CoV-2 Assays and other products, click here

A new article published by Nelly Kanberg, et al. titled Neurochemical evidence of astrocytic and neuronal injury commonly found in COVID-19 has set out to study how COVID-19 impacts the central nervous system. It’s already known how this novel coronavirus effects the respiratory system, but does the body’s inflammatory response to this virus cause lasting effects to the nervous system?

For this study, two biomarkers in human plasma were measured; neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). The samples came from patients who had mild, moderate or severe cases of COVID-19 (n=47). Of those 47 patients, the ones who had a severe case of COVID-19 showed higher concentrations of GFAP and NfL.

Glial Fibrillary Acidic Protien, or GFAP for short, is a known biomarker in the central nervous system (CNS) that is typically studied in those with brain injuries. When a brain injury occurs (concussion, retinal stess, tumors, etc.), GFAP is released into the blood stream and helps determine the severity of the injury. The results of this study help support and determine the relationship between COVID-19 and potentially lasting neural injuries.

To read this article in full, click here.

To learn more about how to measure GFAP, click here or contact us with your questions

Svar Life Sciences has Added Two New assay ready cells to their iLite® Product Line!


iLite® C5a Assay Ready Cells

The iLite® C5a Assay Ready Cells can be used for the quantification of C5a activity, and for determination of inhibitory activity against either C5a itself or against the C5a receptor in test samples, including human serum.

Read Product Specifications Here


iLite® RANKL Assay Ready Cells

The iLite® RANKL Assay Ready Cells can be used for the quantification of RANKL activity, RANKL inhibitor activity or immunogenicity studies and determination of neutralizing antibody response against RANKL inhibitors in test samples, including human serum.

Read Product Specifications Here

 

As always, contact us with any questions you have and someone from our sales team will be happy to assist you!

Comparison of the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 immunoassay with the EDITM enzyme linked immunosorbent assays for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in human plasma

Both of Epitope Diagnostics’ Anti-SARS-COV-2 antibody assays (IgG and IgM) have been featured in a head-to-head comparison against Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2. Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 is manufactured by Roche Diagnostics and has been the gold-standard in the diagnostics industry for automated assays.

Abstract: Recently, Roche Diagnostics (Rotkreuz, Switzerland) has launched the IVD CE-marked Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV-2 assay for the qualitative detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies on the cobas e immunoassay analyzers. The aim of this study was to compare the clinical performance of the Elecsys® Anti-SARS-CoV 2 assay with the EDITM SARS-CoV-2 IgM and IgG enzyme linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA), which we have recently established in our laboratory.

Read and Learn More Here


Coronavirus COVID-19 IgG ELISA Assay

Coronavirus COVID-19 IgM ELISA Assay Kit

We, at Eagle Biosciences, Inc. are rapidly expanding our selection of Coronavirus Assays by welcoming two new research kits! With the ongoing pandemic, it’s more important now than ever that we continue to offer the highest quality assays to our customers. Here are our newest additions;


Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 (RBD) IgG ELISA Assay
Catalog Number: E111

The Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 (RBD) IgG ELISA Assay Kit is manufactured in Germany by Mediagnost. This assay is a highly specific enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgG antibodies directed against SARS-CoV-2-S1 Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) in human blood. In this assay the recombinant Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 S1 spike protein, which binds the ACE2 receptor, is used. The use of RBD increases the specificity of the assay since the domain is identical with SARS-CoV but not with MERS-CoV for example. Antibodies directed against the RBD neutralize both virus strains SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.

Size: 1×96 wells
Incubation Time: 2 hours 40 minutes
Sample Type: Serum and Plasma
Sample Size: 100 µl
Controls Included

To learn more about the Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 (RBD) IgG ELISA Assay click here*


Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (S1, S2, N) IgG ELISA Assay Kit
Catalog Number: 3940

The Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (S1, S2, N) IgG ELISA Assay Kit is manufactured in Germany by Generic Assays. This assay is a module based Enzyme Immunoassay for the confirmation of positive IgG antibodies against SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the first screening. The Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (S1, S2, N) IgG ELISA Assay Kit determines the specificity of antibodies against the main immunodominant antigens (Spike Glycoprotein 1, Spike Glycoprotein 2, Nucleocapsid) of SARS-CoV-2 in human serum or plasma. This test kit consists of modules separately coated with the major antigens of the virus as seen in the illistration below:

Size: 96 wells (24 samples x 4)
Incubation Time: 2 hours
Sample Type: Serum or Plasma
Number Of Tests Per Kit: 24 (22 samples + controls)
Sample Size: 50 µl
Controls Included

To learn more about the Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (S1, S2, N) IgG ELISA Assay Kit click here*

 

Check out our entire Coronavirus Series here or contact us with any questions or inquires

 

*These kits are for research use only and should not be used for diagnostic procedures.

Eagle News

Immune Monitoring COVID-19

Cells infected with SARS-CoV-2 are only visible to CD8+ T cell after virus proteins have been processed and presented by MHC class I molecules – and only then are the CD8+ T cell able to eradicate the infection. While antibodies against the COVID-19 virus are important to prevent or minimize infection, CD8+ T cells are responsible for clearing the virus from the body. Hence, the identification of peptides being presented by MHC class I is essential to:

  • Design potent vaccines eliciting a persistent response and
  • Using MHC class I tetramers to monitor cellular immune responses
  • Assessments of vaccine induced cellular immunity

immunAware’s MHC class I easYmers allow researchers pursuing novel COVID-19 vaccines to generate tetramers and monitor immune responses. In the current pandemic scenario it is essential not to only focus on a few ALA allotypes; rather it is essential to be able to monitor as many allotypes as possible to ensure a novel vaccine targets a broad range of allotypes. Our portfolio of easYmers cover 34 HLA allotypes (HLA-A,-B,-C) which is further supplemented by HLA molecules available for custom tetramer production, bringing the number of available allotypes up to 81. Thus, our range of allotypes ensures a coverage to a 2% frequency in the caucasian population.

The easYmer reagents can also be used to validate the binding of predicted epitopes to further stratify the selection of potential COVID-19 vaccine targets.

As the US distributor for immunAware, Eagle Biosciences offer their extensive catalog of easYmer and MHC tetramer products, including:
easYmer HLA-C*07:02 MHC Tetramers Kit
HLA-A*29:02 (WYMWLGARY) Class I Tetramer
easYmer HLA-B*15:01 MHC Tetramers Kit

See our full list of immunAware products here. If you have questions or for assistance with a specific product, please contact us.

Eagle Biosciences, Inc. is excited to announce the launch of two new assays to help with the growing epidemic of the COVID-19 virus that is spreading worldwide. The COVID-19 IgG and IgM ELISA’s are successfully validated assays for the qualitative detection of novel coronavirus infected pneumonia cases, suspected clustering cases, and other new coronaviruses in serum or plasma samples (COVID-19) through measurement of the COVID-19 IgM or IgG antibodies.

Assay Background
2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is a single-stranded RNA coronavirus. Comparisons of the genetic sequences of is virus have shown similarities to SARS-CoV and bat coronaviruses. In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory infections. Coronaviruses are composed of several proteins including the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N). Results suggest that the spike protein retains sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry. Human to human transmission of coronaviruses is primarily thought to occur among close contacts via respiratory droplets generated by sneezing and coughing. IgM is the first immunoglobulin to be produced in response to an antigen and will be primarily detectable during the early onset of the disease.

Assay Principle
These COVID-19 IgG and IgM ELISA assay kits are designed, developed, and produced for the qualitative measurement of the COVID-19 IgM or COVID-19 IgG antibody in serum. The assays utilizes the “IgM capture” or “IgG capture” methods on microplate based enzyme immunoassay technique.

Assay controls and samples are added to the microtiter wells of a microplate that was coated with an anti-human IgM or IgG specific antibodies. After the first incubation period, the unbound protein matrix is removed with a subsequent washing step. A horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled recombinant COVID-19 antigen is added to each well. After an incubation period, an immunocomplex of Anti-hIgM or Anti-hIgG antibody – human COVID-19 IgM or IgG antibody – HRP labeled COVID-19 antigen is formed if there is novel coronavirus IgM or IgG antibody present in the tested materials. The unbound tracer antigen is removed by the subsequent washing step. HRP-labeled COVID-19 antigen tracer bound to the well is then incubated with a substrate solution in a timed reaction and then measured in a spectrophotometric microplate reader. The enzymatic activity of the tracer antigen bound to the coronavirus IgM of IgG on the wall of the microtiter well is proportional to the amount of the coronavirus IgM or IgG antibody level in the tested materials

To learn more, view assay’s here or contact us for questions! 
Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 IgM ELISA Kit
Novel Coronavirus COVID-19 IgG ELISA Kit