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Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s IL-6 ELISA Assay Kit was utilized in a recent publication that focused on evaluating the antifibrotic effect of anti-CXCR4 i-body AD-114 in kidney fibrosis and elucidating the possible underlying mechanisms by utilizing the in vivo toxin-induced FA nephropathy model of CKD and the in vitro human PTC line. Check out the full-text article and abstract below.


Abstract

The G protein–coupled CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is a candidate therapeutic target for tissue fibrosis. A fully human single-domain antibody-like scaffold i-body AD-114-PA600 (AD-114) with specific high binding affinity to CXCR4 has been developed. To define its renoprotective role, AD-114 was administrated in a mouse model of renal fibrosis induced by folic acid (FA). Increased extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation, macrophage infiltration, inflammatory response, TGF-β1 expression, and fibroblast activation were observed in kidneys of mice with FA-induced nephropathy. These markers were normalized or partially reversed by AD-114 treatment. In vitro studies demonstrated AD-114 blocked TGF-β1–induced upregulated expression of ECM, matrix metalloproteinase-2, and downstream p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38 MAPK) and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling pathways in a renal proximal tubular cell line. Additionally, these renoprotective effects were validated in a second model of unilateral ureteral obstruction using a second generation of AD-114 (Fc-fused AD-114, also named AD-214). Collectively, these results suggest a renoprotective role of AD-114 as it inhibited the chemotactic function of CXCR4 as well as blocked CXCR4 downstream p38 MAPK and PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling, which establish a therapeutic strategy for AD-114 targeting CXCR4 to limit renal fibrosis.

Cao Q., Huang C., Yi H., et al. A single-domain i-body, AD-114, attenuates renal fibrosis through blockade of CXCR4. JCI Insight. (2022) 7:4. https://doi.org/10.1172/jci.insight.143018.


If you have any questions about the IL-6 ELISA Assay Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.

Determination of IL-8 Levels May Posses Potential Prognostic and

Diagnostic Value in Thyroid Cancer Patients

A recent study’s data revealed that the determination of Bax, Bcl-2, IL-8, and TNF-α levels might possess a potential prognostic and diagnostic value in thyroid cancer patients, reflecting that apoptosis and inflammation are important mechanisms in thyroid cancer. These molecular findings were also supported by a series of histopathological and immunohistochemical findings that concluded that tissue TG and TTF1 could be accurate diagnostic factors in patients with thyroid carcinoma. Check out the full text and abstract below.


Abstract

Thyroid cancer is among the most prevalent cancers with different types and stages. New markers are required for the prognosis and diagnosis of the disease. The present study aimed to detect the role of new markers, including galectin-3 (Gal-3) and thyroglobulin (TG), in the prognosis and staging of thyroid cancer. The study also investigated the potential apoptotic and inflammatory mechanisms involved in thyroid cancer through the determination of B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), interleukin-8 (IL-8) and tumor necrosis factor   (TNF ) during the different stages of the cancer using a series of molecular methods. Histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were also performed. A total of 300 subjects were classified into: 100 normal healthy subjects matched in age and sex, 100 patients with thyroid carcinoma stage I (T1N0M0) and 100 patients with thyroid carcinoma stage 2 (T2N1M1). Interestingly, the present study revealed a significant increase in the levels of TG and Gal-3 in thyroid cancer patients compared to the control group. Furthermore, the levels of Bcl-2, IL-8 and TNF-  significantly increased in the patient serum. The histopathological examination and immunohistochemical observations confirmed the molecular and hematological findings. Collectively, the present study concluded that serum TG and Gal-3 could be useful markers in the prognosis and staging of patients with thyroid cancer. Furthermore, the determination of Bax, Bcl-2, IL-8 and TNF-  levels constitute a major important marker for investigation of the mechanisms of apoptosis and inflammation in thyroid cancer. To our knowledge, this is the first study that used both galectin-3 and TG as tumor markers in the prognosis and differentiation between the different stages of cancer.

Okda T.M., Atwa G.M.K., Eldehn A.F., et al. A Novel Role of Galectin-3 and Thyroglobulin in Prognosis and Differentiation of Different Stages of Thyroid Cancer and Elucidation of the Potential Contribution of Bcl-2, IL-8 and TNF-α. Biomedicines 2022, 10(2), 352


Eagle Biosciences’ IL-8 Kits are listed below:

IL-8 Human ELISA Assay
Rat IL-8 ELISA Assay Kit
Mouse IL-8 ELISA Assay Kit

If you have any questions about our IL-8 ELISA Assay Kits or our other offerings, contact us here.

EagleBio Visits AACC in Atlanta Georgia

Eagle Biosciences will be at AACC in Chicago, Illinois!

This year AACC is in Chicago at the McCormick Place Convention Center, Sunday July 24th – Thursday July 28th. We will be at booth #315! Come by to learn about the GA-Map Dybiosis Test Lx and more assays that could help you with your microbiome or other research! We will be there to answer any questions you may have, or stop and say hi! We love seeing our customers!


Product Highlights

GA-Map Dysbiosis Test Lx: The first and only standardized solution for microbiome profiling! The GA-Map Dysbiosis Test Lx is a simple multiplex stool assay that maps the intestinal microbiota profile for a selected set of bacteria. The GA-map® platform uses probes that target variable regions (V3 to V7) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize and identify bacteria present. The targets are identified in a molecular multiplex assay that utilizes the Single Nucleotide Primer Extension (SNuPE) technology patented by Professor Knut Rudi (US6617138). A unique algorithm takes advantage of all the data generated by the detection of the SnuPE products to determine dysbiosis level in the sample. The algorithm is incorporated in the GA-map® Dysbiosis Analyzer software that accompanies the test.

GA-map® Dysbiosis Test Lx Procedure Quick Guide

GA-map Dysbiosis Test


If you have any other questions about these products or our other offerings, contact us here.

Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s Mouse/Rat Dopamine ELISA was utilized in a recent publication focusing on the beneficial consequences of probiotic on mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease. Check out the full text and abstract below.


Background

Abstract
Alzheimer’s (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, causing dementia and brain cells death. This study aimed to assess the ameliorating effect of Acidophilus probiotic against AD induced in rats by d-galactose and AlCl3 injection via evaluating mitochondrial parameter changes in hippocampus.

Methods
This study was carried out on rats were classified into five groups; G1 (control group), G2 (probiotic group), G3 (AD group), G4 (co-treated group) and G5 (post-treated group). By the end of the experiment, some different neurotransmitters, oxidative stress biomarkers, zinc, blood glucose, Na+K−ATPase subunit alpha 1 (ATP1A1), and gene expression of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured.

Results
Significant changes in neurotransmitters, antioxidants levels and decreased ATP1A1 activity and gene expression of MMP in the hippocampus in G3 were detected if compared to control. Best improvement in G5 than G4 group was observed. These results were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical studies in hippocampus.

Conclusions
Acidophilus probiotic was able to alleviate learning and memory associated injuries in AD by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction induced by d-galactose and AlCl3. This may be associated with its antioxidant properties.

Beltagy, D., Nawar, N., Mohamed, T., et al. Beneficial consequences of probiotic on mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, (2021).


If you have any questions about the Mouse/Rat Dopamine ELISA or our other offerings, please contact us here.

Lipid peroxidation is a well-established mechanism of cellular injury in both plants and animals and is used as an indicator of oxidative stress in cells and tissues. Lipid peroxides are unstable and decompose to form a complex series of compounds including reactive carbonyl compounds. Polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxides generate malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (HAE) upon decomposition. The measurement of MDA and HAE has been used as an indicator of lipid peroxidation (1).

A study was published in the journal Life Sciences, on the role vanillin plays as either prophylaxis or treatment in liver regeneration augmentation. Check out the full text here. 


Abstract

Aims
This study has been designed to investigate the role of vanillin either as prophylaxis or treatment in liver regeneration augmentation and liver fibrosis regression in thioacetamide (TAA) induced liver damage.

Materials and Methods
Animals were injected with TAA to induce liver injury (200 mg/kg twice weekly) for 8 weeks. In vanillin prophylaxis group; rats were administered vanillin (100 mg/Kg; IP, daily) from day 1 of TAA injection for 8 weeks. In vanillin treatment group; rats were confronted with the same dose of TAA injection for 8 weeks then treated with vanillin (100 mg/Kg, IP, daily) for 4 weeks. ALT, AST activities, serum albumin, hepatic GSH, MDA, HGF, VEGF, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were measured and also, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and cyclin D gene expression were determined. Liver sections were stained with H&E and Sirius red and immunostained for Ki-67 and α-SMA for histological and immunohistological changes analysis.

Key Findings
Vanillin improved liver function and histology. Also, showed a remarkable increase in hepatic HGF and VEGF level, and up-regulation of cyclin D1 expression accompanied by a significant up-regulation of MMP-2 and down- regulation of TIMP-1. All these effects were accompanied by TNF-α, IL-6 and oxidative stress significant attenuation.

Significance
In conclusion, vanillin enhanced liver regeneration in TAA-induced liver damage model; targeting growth factors (HGF, VEGF) and cellular proliferation marker cyclin D1. As well as stimulating fibrosis regression by inhibition of ECM accumulation and enhancing its degradation.


About the Lipid Peroxidase Assay

Sample Type: Biological Fluids
Sample Size: 140 µl
Incubation Time: 3 hours


If you have any questions on the Lipid Peroxidase Assay or our other offerings, please contact us here.

Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s easYmer HLA-A*01:01 MHC Tetramers Kit was highlighted in a recent publication that focused on emerging enterococcus pore-forming toxins with MHC/HLA-I as receptors. Check out the abstract and full article below.


Abstract

Enterococci are a part of human microbiota and a leading cause of multidrug resistant infections. Here, we identify a family of Enterococcus pore-forming toxins (Epxs) in E. faecalis, E. faecium, and E. hirae strains isolated across the globe. Structural studies reveal that Epxs form a branch of β-barrel pore-forming toxins with a β-barrel protrusion (designated the top domain) sitting atop the cap domain. Through a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen, we identify human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) complex as a receptor for two members (Epx2 and Epx3), which preferentially recognize human HLA-I and homologous MHC-I of equine, bovine, and porcine, but not murine, origin. Interferon exposure, which stimulates MHC-I expression, sensitizes human cells and intestinal organoids to Epx2 and Epx3 toxicity. Co-culture with Epx2-harboring E. faecium damages human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal organoids, and this toxicity is neutralized by an Epx2 antibody, demonstrating the toxin-mediated virulence of Epx-carrying Enterococcus.

Xiong X., Songhai T., Yang Pan., et al. Emerging enterococcus pore-forming toxins with MHC/HLA-I as receptors. Cell. (2022) vol. 185 7:1157-1171. 10.1016/j.cell.2022.02.002


If you have any questions about the easYmer HLA-A*01:01 MHC Tetramers Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.

Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s Serotonin ELISA Assay Kit was utilized in a recent publication focusing on the beneficial consequences of probiotics on the mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease. Check out the full text and article below.


Background

Abstract
Alzheimer’s (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, causing dementia and brain cells death.

Objectives
This study aimed to assess the ameliorating effect of Acidophilus probiotic against AD induced in rats by d-galactose and AlCl3 injection via evaluating mitochondrial parameter changes in hippocampus.

Methods
This study was carried out on rats were classified into five groups; G1 (control group), G2 (probiotic group), G3 (AD group), G4 (co-treated group) and G5 (post-treated group). By the end of the experiment, some different neurotransmitters, oxidative stress biomarkers, zinc, blood glucose, Na+K−ATPase subunit alpha 1 (ATP1A1), and gene expression of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured.

Results
Significant changes in neurotransmitters, antioxidants levels and decreased ATP1A1 activity and gene expression of MMP in the hippocampus in G3 were detected if compared to control. Best improvement in G5 than G4 group was observed. These results were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical studies in hippocampus.

Conclusions
Acidophilus probiotic was able to alleviate learning and memory associated injuries in AD by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction induced by d-galactose and AlCl3. This may be associated with its antioxidant properties.

Beltagy, D., Nawar, N., Mohamed, T., et al. Beneficial consequences of probiotic on mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, (2021).


If you have any questions about the Serotonin ELISA Assay Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.

Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s ASCA IgG ELISA Kit was highlighted in a recent publication. The aim of this study was to validate an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) in diabetic patients with foot ulcers, after treatment. Check out the abstract and full article below.


Abstract

This work describes the validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) in diabetic patients with foot ulcers, after the treatment with Heberprot-P®. Validation followed regulatory guidelines of US FDA and European Medicine Agency. Minimum required dilution of samples and quality controls were defined using pools of sera from diabetic patients and from healthy donors. Parameters such as cut point, specificity, precision, selectivity, robustness and sample stability were analyzed. The repeatability and intermediate precision percent ranged between 7.93-10.61% and 7.93-11.43 %, respectively, indicating low intra- and inter-assay variation. The specificity was proved by background noise suppression, reaching 100% of inhibition as strong criterion for the specificity of the immunoassay. The validated ELISA is a reliable tool for ASCA detection in human serum after the administration of Heberprot-P®, in order to find immunological reactions associated with latent contamination by host cell proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Perez-Bernal M., Hernandez C., Delgado M., et al. ELISA validation approach for the detection of anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies in patients treated with biopharmaceutical heberprot-P. J. Anal. Pharm. Res. (2021) 10(2):50-56.


If you have any questions about the ASCA IgG ELISA Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.


Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is caused by bleeding within the brain. Very few circulating biomarkers are known to be associated with the risk of ICH. Fibroblast growth factor 23 is a bone-derived protein hormone associated with mortality in patients with heart failure. A recent nested case–control study showed that Fibroblast growth factor 23 is associated with risk of intracerebral hemorrhage: Fibroblast growth factor 23 is associated with risk of intracerebral hemorrhage. Svensson EH, Söderholm M. Eur J Neurol. 2022 Jan;29(1):114-120. doi: 10.1111/ene.15060. PMID: 34379844.


Abstract

Background and purpose: Fibroblast growth factor 23 is an osteogenic hormone associated with chronic kidney disease and is an emerging risk factor for several cardiovascular diseases. The association of Fibroblast growth factor 23 (FGF23) with stroke is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of FGF23 with incident intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH).

Methods: This was a nested case-control study of 220 ICH cases and 244 age- and sex-matched controls from the population-based Malmö Diet and Cancer Study (n = 28,449). Incident ICH cases were ascertained using national registers and classified by bleeding location. Logistic regression was used to study the association of plasma levels of FGF23 with incident ICH, adjusting for potential ICH risk factors. Subgroup analyses were performed for lobar and non-lobar ICH, fatal ICH, ICH with large volume and ICH with poor functional outcome, respectively.

Results: Higher FGF23 levels at baseline were significantly associated with incident ICH. After multivariable adjustment, the odds ratio for the association with all ICH was 1.84 (95% confidence interval [CI] 1.25-2.71, p = 0.002) per doubling of FGF23 concentration. For lobar and non-lobar ICH, odds ratios were 1.73 (95% CI 1.04-2.87, p = 0.035) and 2.13 (95% CI 1.32-3.45, p = 0.002), respectively. FGF23 was also significantly associated with fatal ICH, ICH with large volume and ICH with poor functional outcome.

Conclusions: Higher FGF23 was associated with incident ICH in this nested case-control study. Further studies are required to explore whether the association is causal.


Eagle Biosciences’ FGF23 kits listed below:

FGF23 C-Terminal ELISA Assay Kit
MedFrontier Intact FGF23 Assay


If you have any questions about this items or any of our other offerings, contact us here.

Recent GA-Map Dysbiosis Test Lx Publications
Check out the most recent publications featuring the GA-Map Dysbiosis Test Lx! These studies used the GA-Map Dysbiosis Test Lx to help determine how the gut microbiota takes part in various diseases such as IBS and axial spondyloarthritis. Find them below:


Irritable bowel syndrome patients who are not likely to respond tofecal microbiota transplantation.

Efficacy and Acceptability of Dietary Therapies in NonConstipated Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Trial of Traditional Dietary Advice, the Low FODMAP Diet andthe Gluten-Free Diet.

Gut dysbiosis associated with worse disease activity and physical function in axial spondyloarthritis.


Principle of Analysis

The GA-map® Dysbiosis Test Lx v2 is a test that maps the intestinal microbiota profile for a selected set of bacteria. The GA-map® platform uses probes that target variable regions (V3 to V7) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize and identify bacteria present. The targets are identified in a molecular multiplex assay that utilizes the Single Nucleotide Primer Extension (SNuPE) technology patented by Professor Knut Rudi (US6617138). A unique algorithm takes advantage of all the data generated by the detection of the SnuPE products to determine dysbiosis level in the sample. The algorithm is incorporated in the GA-map® Dysbiosis Analyzer software that accompanies the test.


If you’re looking for more publications featuring the GA-Map Dysbiosis Test Lx, find them here. If you have any questions about this test or any of our other offerings contact us here.