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Endostatin Biomarker Spotlight
Endostatin is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor localized in the vascular basement membrane in various organs. The biological functions of the endostatin-network involve SPARC, thrombospondin-1, glycosaminoglycans, collagens, and integrins. Endostatin is expressed during the progression of renal fibrosis in tubular cells of injured tissue.

A recent study aimed to discover the role of endostatin in in the dysregulation of angiogenesis in patients with kidney and heart failure. Scientists found that due to its capability to inhibit angiogenesis and tumor growth, endostatin is highly involved in these processes in chronic kidney disease and heart failure. Since endostatin is not just a biomarker of angiogenesis but also a hormone regulating these processes, pharmacologic intervention in this system might offer new therapeutic options in the future.

Li M, Popovic Z, Chu C, Krämer B, K, Hocher B: Endostatin in Renal and Cardiovascular Diseases. Kidney Dis 2021. doi: 10.1159/000518221 Full Text Here.


Eagle Biosciences offers a robust assay for the measurement of endostatin in human samples, the Endostatin ELISA Assay Kit. The benefits of this assay include:

  • for serum, plasma, and urine samples
  • SIMPLE analysis – results in 4.5 h
  • LOW SAMPLE VOLUME – only 20µl sample / well
  • HIGH QUALITY – fully validated assay according to ICH/FDA/EMEA

We also offer a Mouse/Rat Endostatin ELISA Assay Kit for other testing needs.


If you have any other questions about these products or our other offerings, contact us here.


Polystreptavidin R (Polystrept R) reagent is for the surface coating of plastics, membranes, beads and etc. with maximum biotin binding capacity. It improves the signal-noise-relation in testing and can help save on material costs.

About Polystreptavidin R (Polystrept R)

Polystrept R is a chemically modified polymerized Streptavidin characterized by an extraordinary high Biotin binding capacity. Polystrept R coatings on solid phases offer a universal immobilization principle for the detection and analysis of proteins, peptides, PCR-fragments, haptens etc., which must be present in a biotinylated form. Coatings made of Polystreptavidin R combine the excellent binding capacity with a high chemo and thermo stability and a long shelf life. It is suitable for coatings of membranes, beads, biochips, plastics etc.

Learn about the benefits of using Polystrept R in your research in this video from Biotez!


Why use streptavidin-coated microplates and Polystrept R with lateral flow test strips??

  • Convenient method for a uniform and stable immobilization of biotinylated molecules
  • Immobilization of Biomolecules on solid phases in a directed manner, while avoiding or minimizing denaturation
  • Ready-to-use, no washing or blocking steps required
  • High signal-to-noise ratio
  • Low nonspecific binding
  • Long shelf life
  • Lower reagent consumption and especially enormous cost savings with lateral flow test stripes

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If you have any questions about Polystreptavidin R or our other offerings, contact us here.

EagleBio Visits AACC in Atlanta Georgia

Eagle Biosciences will be at AACC in Atlanta Georgia!

AACC is next week, Sunday September 26th – Thursday September 30th, at the Georgia World Congress Center. Stop by booth #3036 to learn more about the GA-Map Dybiosis Test Lx and Cov19 FluoBolt-DAT and other assays that could help you with your microbiome or COVID-19 research! We will be there to answer any questions you may have, or stop and say hi! We love seeing our customers!


Product Highlights

GA-Map Dysbiosis Test Lx: The first and only standardized solution for microbiome profiling! The GA-Map Dysbiosis Test Lx is a simple multiplex stool assay that identifies 48 bacterial markers. All reagents and required software are included in the kit, and it is designed to be run for routine testing.

Cov19 FluoBolt-DAT: This newest addition to our FluoBolt line of assays is a duplex antibody test. This assay is intended for the simultaneous detection of anti-nucleocapsid antibodies and anti-S1 RBD antibodies to SARS-CoV-19. This is a valuable tool for evaluating immunity against SARS-CoV-2 acquired through infection as well as vaccination.


If you have any other questions about these products or our other offerings, contact us here.

Vanin-1 Biomarker Spotlight

Vanin-1 (VAN1) is an anchored protein that catalyzes the hydrolysis of pantetheine to pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and cyteamine. VAN1 has a broad tissue expression with the highest levels being observed in kidney tubular epithelial cells. The GPI anchor of VAN1 can be cleaved by a yet unknown mechanism, resulting in VAN-1 being shed into the extracellular space.

Vanin-1 plays a pivotal role in oxidative stress and the inflammatory response. However, its relationship with traumatic sepsis remains unknown. In a study aimed to identify whether VAN1 could be used as a biomarker for traumatic sepsis, scientists found there is a significant relationship between plasma VAN1 and sepsis in both the internal test cohort and the external validation cohort. These results contribute to the body of evidence supporting the use of plasma VAN1 in the early prediction of traumatic sepsis.

Learn more about that study here.


Eagle Biosciences offers a comprehensive Vanin-1 ELISA for urine samples.

Vanin-1 ELISA Assay Highlights

  • Optimized for human urine samples
  • Highly SPECIFIC and DEFINED characterized antibodies
  • RELIABLE – rigorously validated
  • QUICK one-step ELISA

We also provide a Vanin-1 Mouse/Rat ELISA Assay Kit that has been validated for mouse or rat serum, plasma, or urine samples.


If you have any questions about this product or our other offerings, contact us here.

At this time it is unknown for how long antibodies persist following infection or vaccination, and if the presence of antibodies confers protective immunity. Antibodies to SARS-CoV-2 are generally detectable in blood several days after initial infection or vaccination, although the duration of time antibodies are present post-infection or post-vaccination is not well characterized. Individuals may have detectable virus present for several weeks following seroconversion.

The Cov19 FluoBolt-DAT test, manufactured in Austria by Fianostics GmbH, is a duplex antibody test that is intended to identify individuals with an adaptive immune response to SARS-CoV-2, indicating recent or prior infection or vaccination. There is a high demand to know how protected populations are after COVID-19 onset or vaccination, this test is the next step in identifying immunity.


How the Cov19 FluoBolt-DAT Test Works

When performing the assay, 10 µl of a patient serum or plasma sample are simultaneously mixed with 50 µl of two different fluorescence-labeled tracer antibodies against the S1RBD and against the NC protein and incubated in our special fluorescence-enhancing microtiter plate for 60 minutes. By measuring at 2 different wavelengths, their displacement by homologous antibodies from the patient sample is determined simultaneously. The signals at one wavelength provide information about the concentration of anti-S1RBD antibodies. The signals at the other wavelength indicate the concentration of anti-nucleocapsid antibodies.

By using the supplied calibrators, a calibration curve for the anti-S1RBD and the antiNC antibodies is constructed, and the antibody concentration of a patient sample is read from it. With just a single measurement, this results in a quantitative determination of these
two antibody species against SARS-CoV-2, which represent the majority of the immune response and may protect against infection and illness.

Cov19 FluoBolt-DAT Test Standard Curves
For measurement, any commercially available fluorescence microtiter plate reader can be used.

Click here to learn more about the Cov19 FluoBolt-DAT test.


If you have any questions about this kit or our other offerings, contact us here.

IHC Antibodies

Eagle Biosciences, Inc. is excited to announce a new line of monoclonal IHC Antibodies. These anti-human antibodies are intended to be used to identify the presence of associated antigens in tissue samples. This identification should be made using light microscopy in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue sections using immunohistochemistry test methods.  The use of these antibodies has been show to be an aid in the identification of neoplastic tissue, within the context of antibody panels. These IHC Antibodies are available in two formats. We offer a concentrated formula at volumes of 0.1 mL and 1.0 mL, as well as a prediluted formula at a volume of 7 mL.

Find a list of the popular and unique markers that we are now offering below.


IHC Antibodies

Monoclonal Mouse Anti-Human SOX-10 Antibody
Monoclonal Rabbit Anti-Human PD-L1 Antibody
Monoclonal Mouse Anti-Human HER2/neu Antibody
Monoclonal Rabbit Anti-Human Estrogen Receptor Antibody
Monoclonal Mouse Anti-Human BRAF V600E Antibody
Monoclonal Mouse Anti-Human p63 Antibody
Monoclonal Mouse Anti-Human p16 INK4A Antibody
Monoclonal Mouse Anti-Human MLH1 Antibody
Monoclonal Mouse Anti-Human MDM2 Antibody
Monoclonal Rabbit Anti-Human Ki-67 Antibody
Monoclonal Mouse Anti-Human IDH1 R132H Antibody


If you have any questions about these products or any of our other offerings, contact us here.

COVID-19 IgM

The Eagle Bioscience’s Coronavirus COVID-19 IgM ELISA Assay Kit was recently highlighted in a publication about a review on current diagnostic techniques for COVID-19. This review includes techniques such as RT-PCR, ddPCR, LAMP, CRISPR, and immunoassay techniques. To learn more about this publication, read below:

Abstract


Introduction
SARS-Cov-2 first appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and spread all over the world soon after that. Given the infectious nature of SARS-CoV-2, fast and accurate diagnosis tools are important to detect the virus. In this review, we discuss the different diagnostic tests that are currently being implemented in laboratories and provide a description of various COVID-19 kits.

Areas Covered
We summarize molecular techniques that target the viral load, serological methods used for SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies detection as well as newly developed faster assays for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in various biological samples.

Expert Opinion
In the light of the widespread pandemic, the massive diagnosis of COVID-19, using various detection techniques, appears to be the most effective strategy for monitoring and containing its propagation.

Jaddaoui, IE., Allali, M., Raoui, S., et al. A review on current diagnostic techniques for COVID-19. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics. (2021) 21:2, 141-160.


If you have any questions about this Coronavirus COVID-19 IgM ELISA Assay Kit or our other products, contact use here!

Anti-Infliximab ELISA

The Eagle Bioscience’s Anti-Infliximab ELISA Assay Kit was recently highlighted in a publication about factors that are associated with reduced infliximab exposure in the treatment of pediatric autoimmune disorders.

Abstract


Background
Inadequate systemic exposure to infliximab (IFX) is associated with treatment failure. This work evaluated factors associated with reduced IFX exposure in children with autoimmune disorders requiring IFX therapy.

Methods
In this single-center cross-sectional prospective study IFX trough concentrations and anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) were measured in serum from children diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (n = 73), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (n = 16), or uveitis (n = 8) receiving maintenance IFX infusions at an outpatient infusion clinic in a tertiary academic pediatric hospital. IFX concentrations in combination with population pharmacokinetic modeling were used to estimate IFX clearance. Patient demographic and clinical data were collected by chart review and evaluated for their relationship with IFX clearance.

Results
IFX trough concentrations ranged from 0 to > 40 μg/mL and were 3-fold lower in children with IBD compared to children with JIA (p = 0.0002) or uveitis (p = 0.001). Children with IBD were found to receive lower IFX doses with longer dosing intervals, resulting in dose intensities (mg/kg/day) that were 2-fold lower compared to children with JIA (p = 0.0002) or uveitis (p = 0.02). Use of population pharmacokinetic analysis to normalize for variation in dosing practices demonstrated that increased IFX clearance was associated with ADA positivity (p = 0.004), male gender (p = 0.02), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (p = 0.02), elevated c-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.001), reduced serum albumin concentrations (p = 0.0005), and increased disease activity in JIA (p = 0.009) and IBD (p ≤ 0.08). No significant relationship between diagnosis and underlying differences in IFX clearance was observed. Multivariable analysis by covariate population pharmacokinetic modeling confirmed increased IFX clearance to be associated with anti-IFX antibody positivity, increased ESR, and reduced serum albumin concentrations.

Conclusions
Enhanced IFX clearance is associated with immunogenicity and inflammatory burden across autoimmune disorders. Higher systemic IFX exposures observed in children with rheumatologic disorders are driven primarily by provider drug dose and interval selection, rather than differences in IFX pharmacokinetics across diagnoses. Despite maintenance IFX dosing at or above the standard recommended range for IBD (i.e., 5 mg/kg every 8 weeks), the dosing intensity used in the treatment of IBD is notably lower than dosing intensities used to treat JIA and uveitis, and may place some children with IBD at risk for suboptimal maintenance IFX exposures necessary for treatment response.

Funk, RS., Shakhnovich, V., Cho, YK., et al. Factors associated with reduced infliximab exposure in the treatment of pediatric autoimmun disorders: a cross-sectional prospective convenience sampling study. Pediatric Rheumatology. (2021) 19:62


If you have any questions about the Anti-Infliximab ELISA Assay Kit or our other offerings, contact us here.

The Eagle Bioscience’s Calprotectin ELISA Assay Kit was highlighted in a recent study! In this publication scientists studied the dose effect of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) fortification on diarrhea and respiratory tract infections in weaned infants with anemia.

Abstract


Objective
The aim of this study was to explore the dose effect of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) fortification on the morbidity of diarrhea and respiratory tract infections in weaned infants with anemia.

Methods
A total of 108 infants with anemia, who were exclusively breast fed at 4 to 6 months and weaned and formula fed at 6 to 9 months, were recruited. The eligible infants were randomly assigned to fortified group 0 (FG0), fortified group 1 (FG1), or fortified group 2 (FG2) and were given formula fortified with 0 mg/100 g, 38 mg/100 g, and 76 mg/100 g of bLF, respectively, for 3 mo. The morbidity of diarrhea and respiratory tract infections (RTIs), the duration of respiratory and diarrhea-related illnesses, and the levels of fecal human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2), cathelicidin LL-37 (LL-37), secretory IgA (sIgA), butyrate, and calprotectin were assessed.

Results
After the exclusion of 12 dropouts, the primary outcome measures, including episodes and duration of diarrhea and RTIs during the intervention, were obtained from 96 infants (35, 33, and 28 in FG0, FG1, and FG2, respectively). Compared with infants in FG0, there was a lower morbidity of rhinorrhea, wheezing, and skin rash among infants in FG1 (P < 0.05) and a lower morbidity of respiratory-related illness and wheezing among infants in FG2 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a lower morbidity of diarrhea-related illness, diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea was observed among infants in FG2 than those in the other two groups (P < 0.05). In addition, the FG1 infants had a lower morbidity of vomiting and nausea than the FG0 infants (P < 0.05). The HBD-2, LL-37, sIgA, and calprotectin levels were significantly higher whereas the butyrate level was significantly lower in the FG2 infants than in infants in the other two groups after 3 mo of intervention (P < 0.05).

Conclusions
The bLF-fortified formula was effective in reducing the morbidity of diarrhea and RTIs in infants with anemia, with the 76 mg/100 g bLF-fortified formula exhibiting a stronger effect. The bLF fortification could be a new strategy for the prevention of diarrhea and RTIs in infants with anemia.

Chen, K., Jin, S., Chen, H.,et al. Dose effect of bovine lactoferrin fortification on diarrhea and respiratory tract infections in weaned infants with anemia: A randomized, controlled trial. Nutrition. (2021)90:111288


If you have any questions about this product or our other offerings, contact us here.

PTX3 Biomarker Spotlight
Pentraxins are a superfamily of acute phase reactants characterized by a pentameric structure. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), is locally produced and released by a variety of cell types including macrophages, neutrophils, myeloid-derived mesangial cells, synovial cells, smooth muscle cells, alveolar epithelium, and glial cells. PTX3 is induced in response to either inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) or the selected associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PTX3 is elevated in critically ill patients, with a gradient from systematic inflammatory response syndrome to septic shock, and in several other diseases, such as myocardial infarction, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, small vessel vasculitis and psoriasis.


Oncologists at Queen Mary’s University whether PTX 3 could be a reliable biomarker for detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PDAC is characterized by an intense desmoplastic stroma, laid down by the pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). One of the defining features of PDAC is that there are very few cancer cells. Pancreatic cancer is surprisingly made up of mostly non-cancer cells, which have been co-opted by cancer to build a huge amount of scar tissue or stroma around the cancer, providing a strong defense for the cancer cells. The researchers found that PTX3 is a putative stromally-derived biomarker for PDAC which warrants further testing in prospective, larger, multi-center cohorts and within clinical trials targeting stroma.

To read more about this study, click here.


Related Products

Pentraxin-3 ELISA Assay Kit
High Sensitive CRP ELISA Assay Kit
SAP ELISA Assay Kit

If you have any questions or want to learn more about our offerings, contact us here.