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Endostatin Biomarker Spotlight

Endostatin, a 20-kDa C-terminal proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII, is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor localized in the vascular basement membrane in various organs. The biological functions of the endostatin-network involve SPARC, thrombospondin-1, glycosaminoglycans, collagens, and integrins. It is expressed during the progression of renal fibrosis in tubular cells of injured tissue. In renal micro-vascular disease, observed in late stages of patients with chronic kidney disease, increased endostatin levels are possibly the consequence of enhanced extracellular matrix degradation. Thus, it may become an important marker for progressive microvascular renal disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. Endostatin levels in blood are also likely to increase in patients with other microvascular tissue injuries, including atherosclerosis, myocardial- and brain ischemia. In ischemic stroke patients, high endostatin plasma levels predict a worse long-term clinical outcome.


A team of researchers recently demonstrated that serial measurement of endostatin in plasma has useful predictive value for 30-day mortality in Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) patients after major surgery.

Prognostic value of dynamic plasma endostatin for the prediction of mortality in acute kidney injury: A prospective cohort study. Jia HM et al., J Int Med Res. 2020 48(7):300060520940856.. Full Text.


Related Products:
Endostatin ELISA Assay Kit
Endostatin Mouse/Rat ELISA Assay Kit

Anti-tTG sIgA/IgA ELISA Assay Kit

Eagle Biosciences is excited to announce the new Anti-tTG sIgA/IgA ELISA Assay Kit. This kit is intended for the quantitative determination of anti-human tissue transglutaminase sIgA/IgA in stool samples.

Assay Background


Celiac disease is a chronic illness of the small intestinal mucous membrane. The reason is an intolerance against gluten, which is found in many cereals. This food intolerance against cereal proteins leads to a production of auto-antibodies against tissue transglutaminase, which is the major antigen for endomysium antibodies.

The intake of gluten-containing food leads to an inflammation of the small intestinal mucous membrane, which results in a reduced absorption of nutrients. The symptoms of the disease are reduction of weight, diarrhea, vomitus, anorexia and tiredness. The growth of children is impaired. The characteristic of the symptoms might be different. The only therapeutic treatment is a gluten-free diet. A non-treated celiac disease increases the risk of non-Hodgkin-lymphoma and colon cancer. Celiac disease is associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus in five to ten percent of the patients. Women are more often affected than men. The outcome of the disease is pronounced during infancy and in ages between 30 and 40 years old.

Applications:

  • Food Intolerance
  • Monitoring an Elimination Diet

Anti-tTG sIgA/IgA ELISA Assay Kit Advantages

  • Easy
  • Rapid
  • Precise
  • All reagents included

If you have any questions about this kit or our other offerings, contact us here.

dopamine elisa assay kit

The Eagle Biosciences’ Dopamine ELISA Assay Kit was used recently in a Parkinson study. This study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect that tiron could have against MPTP-induced Parkinsonism. Read more about this study below.

Abstract


Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disease that is common all over the world. This study aimed at exploring the neuroprotective effect of tiron against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsonism. MPTP (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) was injected in mice daily for 5 consecutive days. Mice were treated with tiron (140 and 280 mg/kg, ip) or levodopa (8.4 mg/kg, orally) for 10 consecutive days starting 5 days before MPTP injection. At the end of the experiment, behavioral tests were conducted to assess the neuroprotective effect of tiron. Moreover, oxidative stress was assessed via measuring antioxidant enzyme, such as catalase, and lipid peroxidation was evaluated as malondialdehyde. Neuronal damage was also detected by histopathological examination and via estimating hippocampal levels of dopamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2. In addition, the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 and heme oxygenase-1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the blank control group and the positive control group, the inhibitory effect of tiron on MPTP-induced neurodegenerative injury was statistically significant.

Mohamed SA, El-Kashef DH, Nader MA. Tiron Alleviates MPTP-Inceded Parkisonism in Mice Via Activation of Keap-1/Nrf2 Pathway. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2020;35:e22685.


Related Products

Dopamine ELISA Assay Kit
GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric-Acid) ELISA Assay Kit
Serotonin ELISA Assay Kit

If you would like to learn more, or have any questions about our offerings, contact us here.

New Cytokine Assay Kits

Eagle Biosciences is excited to announce a new line of cytokine assays!

About Cytokines

Cytokines are a cornerstone of any study that deals with inflammation. Cytokine profiles as a whole and the relative abundance of one cytokine, and the endogenous inhibitors, define an inflammatory process that is in motion. Specific cytokines of interest include interleukins, interferons, chemokins, and members of the tumor necrosis factor and TGF beta super families.

Cytokine sandwich ELISA are sensitive enzyme immunoassays that can specifically detect and quantitate the concentration of soluble cytokine and chemokine proteins. They allow researchers to study the complicated physiological and pathological roles of cytokines in systemic inflammatory reactions, and accurately measure the levels of specific cytokines under physiological and pathological conditions which can provide valuable insight into the changes associated with different disease states.


Our Available Cytokine Assays

Human IL-4 ELISA Assay Kit
Human IL-6 High Sensitivity ELISA Assay Kit
Human IL-10 ELISA Assay Kit
Mouse IL-4 ELISA Assay Kit
Mouse IL-8 ELISA Assay Kit
Mouse IL-12 ELISA Assay Kit
Rat IFN-gamma ELISA Assay Kit
Rat IL-2 ELISA Assay Kit
Rat IL-4 ELISA Assay Kit
Rat IL-8 ELISA Assay Kit
Rat IL-10 ELISA Assay Kit
Rat IL-12/P40 ELISA Assay Kit
VEGF ELISA Assay Kit
Angiopoietin-2 ELISA Assay Kit

If you have any questions about our offerings contact us here.

RANKL Regulates Male Reproductive Function
Infertility is a frequent problem affecting up to 26% of all couples globally. Impaired semen quality is responsible for approximately 50% of all cases, but no treatment options exist. This current study provides insights into a yet unrecognized regulatory role of RANKL in male reproductive function.

Abstract


Infertile men have few treatment options. Here, we demonstrate that the transmembrane receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL) signaling system is active in mouse and human testis. RANKL is highly expressed in Sertoli cells and signals through RANK, expressed in most germ cells, whereas the RANKL-inhibitor osteoprotegerin (OPG) is expressed in germ and peritubular cells. OPG treatment increases wild-type mouse sperm counts, and mice with global or Sertoli-specific genetic suppression of Rankl have increased male fertility and sperm counts. Moreover, RANKL levels in seminal fluid are high and distinguishes normal from infertile men with higher specificity than total sperm count. In infertile men, one dose of Denosumab decreases RANKL seminal fluid concentration and increases serum Inhibin-B and anti-Müllerian-hormone levels, but semen quality only in a subgroup. This translational study suggests that RANKL is a regulator of male reproductive function, however, predictive biomarkers for treatment-outcome requires further investigation in placebo-controlled studies.

Find the full text here.


Eagle Biosciences offers an ELISA kit that can measure soluble RANKL and OPG in serum and seminal fluid. These kits are reliable and highly sensitive. For more information about these kits or our other offerings, contact us here.

Free soluble RANKL ELISA Assay Kit
Osteoprotegerin ELISA Assay Kit

Sclerostin Biomarker Spotlight

A recent systemic review and meta-analysis of studies with serum amyloid A in patients with COVID-19 published by the International Journal of Infectious Diseases has found high concentrations of serum amyloid A associated with higher COVID-19 severity and mortality. This review analyzed nineteen studies consisting of over five thousand patients with COVID-19. The pooled results showed that serum amyloid A concentrations were significantly higher in those patients with severe disease and non-survivors. This measurement could be useful for risk stratification and clinical monitoring of these patients.

Background


A state of excessive local and systemic inflammation and immune activation are strongly associated with oxidative stress, coagulation abnormalities, and multi-organ dysfunction in patients with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). While safe and effective vaccines have been developed and are currently being rolled out, effective therapies to mitigate the clinical manifestations of COVID-19, e.g., repurposed antiviral and immunosuppressant agents, remain limited. In this context, the use of biomarkers of disease severity and clinical progression would facilitate the early identification of patients requiring aggressive management and monitoring and assist with the judicious use of healthcare resources. Given the key pathophysiological role of inflammation and immunity in the clinical progress of COVID-19, markers that reflect the activation of these pathways might be particularly useful for risk stratification and effective management.

Serum amyloid A (SAA) genes and proteins are significantly activated during the acute phase response, which comprises a number of phenomena that occur in the presence of inflammation and infection, e.g., increased temperature and hormonal and metabolic alterations. Circulating SAA concentrations, typically low under physiological circumstances (20–50 mg/l), can increase up to 1000-fold within the first 24–48 h of an acute phase response. This is the consequence of increased synthesis in the liver that is triggered by several stimuli, including tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). SAA, in turn, can activate the complement system and the nucleotide-binding domain leucine-rich repeat-containing family pyrin-domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome, further increase the synthesis of TNF, IL-1β, and IL-6, and activate other proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-1α and IL-23. Notably, these mediators have been shown to contribute significantly to the onset of the cytokine storm and its adverse clinical consequences in COVID-19. Therefore, it is plausible that the acute increase in SAA concentrations in patients with COVID-19 might not only reflect the presence of an acute phase response, but also herald the development of a cytokine storm and, consequently, multi-organ failure and an increased risk of adverse outcomes.

Two systematic reviews and meta-analyses on a relatively limited number of studies, three and five, respectively, have reported a significant and positive association between SAA concentrations and COVID-19 severity. Following the publication of several additional studies, an updated systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted of the available evidence on the clinical implications of SAA concentrations in patients with COVID-19.

Read the full text here.

Related Products


Human SAA ELISA Assay Kit
Human TNF Alpha ELISA Assay
High Sensitive IFN Gamma ELISA Assay
IL-6 ELISA Assay Kit

If you have any questions about our products contacts us here.

Lipid Peroxidase Assay Kit Publication Spotlight

Eagle Biosciences Lipid Peroxidase Assay Kit was recently highlighted in two studies involving hepatic ischemia and reperfusion injuries. Hepatic ischemia is a condition where the liver does not recieve enough blood or oxygen, causing the liver cells injury. Lipid peroxidation is a well-established mechanism of cellular injury, and is used as an indicator of oxidative stress in cells and tissues. Lipid peroxides are unstable and decompose to form a complex series of compounds including reactive carbonyl compounds. Polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxides generate malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (HAE) upon decomposition. The measurement of these biomolecules has been used as a indicator of lipid peroxidase.

The Eagle Biosciences’ Lipid Peroxidase Assay Kit is a highly sensitive tool for measuring MDA and HAE in biological fluids.

Read more about these studies below:

Gendy A, Elnagar MR, Soubh A, et al. Morin Alleviates Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Mischief: In Vivo and In Silico Contribution of Nrf2, TLR4, and NLRP3. Biomed Pharmacother. 2021;138:111539.

Mohamed DZ, El-Sisi AE, Sokar SS, et al. Targeting Autophagy to Modulate Hepatic Ischemia/Reperfusion Injury: A Comparative Study Between Octreotide and Melatonin as Autophagy Modulators Through AMPK/PI3k/AKT/mTOR/ULK1 and Keap1/Nrf2 Signaling Pathways in Rats. Eur J Pharmacol. 2021;897:173920.

Related Products

Lipid Peroxidase Assay Kit
GSH / GSSG Microplate Assay Kit
Creatinine Microplate Assay Kit

Eagle Biosciences Announces Agreement with Genetic Analysis

Eagle Biosciences Announces Agreement with
Genetic Analysis AS for Distribution in North America

Eagle Biosciences, Inc., a North American distributor of assay kits and antibodies, recently announced a distribution agreement with Genetic Analysis AS, a Norwegian molecular diagnostics company. The focus of the collaboration is on the unique, patented GA-map® Dysbiosis Test which detects and characterizes imbalance in the gut microbiota (dysbiosis) in human fecal samples. Additionally, Genetic Analysis has developed a fecal COVID-19 test that is performed on the same GA-map platform and is an important research tool in the analysis of an individual’s COVID-19 status.

Genetic Analysis (GA) is a molecular diagnostics company with a core focus of providing innovative tools for studying the human microbiome. GA has developed and launched the GA-map platform for routine gut microbiome research and analysis. The first test on this groundbreaking platform is the GA-map Dysbiosis Test. The Dysbiosis Test is the first documented test to identify and characterize the gut microbiota composition. The GA-map Test platform is not based on sequencing but is a targeted probe-based assay. The precise and targeted approach makes it an easy plug and play platform as long as the targets are identified. GA’s vision is to become the company that standardizes gut microbiota testing worldwide.

“We are looking forward to working with Genetic Analysis and the opportunity to bring their products to labs in the US and Canada.”, states Eagle Biosciences President Dan Keefe. “Genetic Analysis has been a pioneer in the microbiota industry and has over ten years of experience in the field. We are especially excited about their GA-map® Dysbiosis Test because it is the first standardized, off-the-shelf biome mapping kit and can be run in any PCR lab.”

If you have any questions about the GA-map® test platform or any of Eagle Biosciences products, please contact us here.

About Genetic Analysis AS

Genetic Analysis AS (GA) is a science-based diagnostic company and pioneer in the human microbiome field with more than 10 years of expertise in research and product development. The unique GA-map® platform is based on a pre-targeted multiplex approach specialized for simultaneous analysis of a large number of bacteria in one reaction. The test results are generated by utilizing the clinically validated cutting edge GA-map® software algorithm. This enables immediate results without the need of further bioinformatics work. GA’s mission is to become the leading company for standardized gut microbiota testing worldwide, and GA is committed to help unlocking and restoring the human microbiome through its state-of-the-art technology. GA holds 22 highly qualified employees with relevant scientific backgrounds and with competence in bioinformatics, molecular biology, and bioengineering.

For more information about Genetic Analysis, click here.

About Eagle Biosciences, Inc.

Since 2010, Eagle Biosciences has been providing the highest quality and best value immunoassays, antibodies, and proteins available on the market. There are many suppliers of ELISAs and other assays and hundreds of thousands of products to choose from, but EagleBio only offers products that deliver the maximum level of performance and provide reliable and trusted results.

For more information about Eagle Biosciences, Inc., click here.

Sclerostin Biomarker Spotlight
Sclerostin is a secreted glycoprotein that functions as a potent inhibitor of Wnt signaling. It acts by binding to the Wnt-coreceptor LRP5/6 thus inhibiting bone formation by regulating osteoblast function and promoting osteoblast apoptosis. Sclerostin is primarily produced by osteocytes. It inhibits the canonical Wnt pathway and thereby osteoblasts. It also stimulates RANKL release by the osteocytes and thereby osteoclast recruitment. Inhibition of sclerostin causes stimulation of bone formation and inhibition of resorption. Read more about sclerostin’s role in bone remodeling here.

Sclerostin levels are altered in response to hormonal stimuli or due to pathophysiological conditions. The concentrations are increased in disorders such as hypoparathyroidism, Paget’s disease, multiple myeloma and in cancer induced bone diseases. Mutations in the SOST gene can cause sclerosteosis and van Buchem disease which are bone dysplasia disorders characterized by progressive skeletal overgrowth. Sclerostin levels are decreased in primary hyperparathyroidism, as well as by the mechanical stimulation of bone.

A mini-review was published in the The Journal of Clinical Endocrinology & Metabolism regarding the effect of sclerostin inhibition on the cardiovascular safety of patients. Read the full text here.


Eagle Biosciences offers a sensitive and reliable assay for the detection of sclerostin in serum and plasma samples.

Advantages of the Sclerostin ELISA Assay Kit

    • High Quality – rigorously validated according to ICH/FDA/EMEA guidelines
    • Low Sample Volume – only 20ul of sample per well
    • Easy – ready to use protocol, standards and controls included

Related Products

Osteoprotegerin ELISA Assay Kit
Free Soluble RANKL ELISA Assay Kit
FGF23 C-Terminal ELISA Assay Kit

If you are looking for any other specific related products, or have any questions about our offerings contact us here.

IL-6 High Sensitive ELISA Assay Kit New Product

Eagle Biosciences is excited to announce the Human IL-6 High Sensitive ELISA Assay Kit from Biomedica! This powerful kit offers a wide dynamic range with extraordinary sensitivity. It provides superior performance and reliability for all your researching needs.


About Interleukin-6 (IL-6)

IL-6 is a pleiotropic cytokine that plays a crucial role in regulating the acute phase response, inflammation, hematopoiesis, glucose metabolism, bone metabolism, and cancer progression. IL-6 is an early marker of acute inflammation. In patients with COVID-19, IL-6 levels are significantly elevated and associated with adverse clinical outcomes. Therefore, serum IL-6 is an important biomarker for severity of COVID-19 and has great potential for guiding treatment of the disease.

IL-6 can reliably be measured by ELISA (cat.no. BI-IL6) in human serum, plasma and urine samples with Biomedica’s fully validated assay kit. The kit is highly sensitive and offers a wide dynamic range. The kit incorporates ready to use standards and controls.

Features & Benefits of the Human IL-6 High Sensitive ELISA Assay Kit

√ EASY ready to use calibrators & controls included
√ High SENSITIVITY measurable values in serum and plasma
√ Full validation package – the assay is optimized for clinical samples
√ HIGH QUALITY GUARANTEED


Related publications:

Interleukin-6 in Covid-19: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Coomes EA, Haghbayan H. Rev Med Virol. 2020 Nov;30(6):1-9. Full text.

Assessing the importance of interleukin-6 in COVID-19. Chen LYC, Hoiland RL, Stukas S, Wellington CL, Sekhon MS. Lancet Respir Med. 2021 Feb;9(2):e13. Full text.


If you have any questions about the Human Il-6 High Sensitive ELISA Assay Kit or any of our other offerings, contact us here.