Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s Mouse/Rat Dopamine ELISA was utilized in a recent publication focusing on the beneficial consequences of probiotic on mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease. Check out the full text and abstract below.


Background

Abstract
Alzheimer’s (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, causing dementia and brain cells death. This study aimed to assess the ameliorating effect of Acidophilus probiotic against AD induced in rats by d-galactose and AlCl3 injection via evaluating mitochondrial parameter changes in hippocampus.

Methods
This study was carried out on rats were classified into five groups; G1 (control group), G2 (probiotic group), G3 (AD group), G4 (co-treated group) and G5 (post-treated group). By the end of the experiment, some different neurotransmitters, oxidative stress biomarkers, zinc, blood glucose, Na+K−ATPase subunit alpha 1 (ATP1A1), and gene expression of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured.

Results
Significant changes in neurotransmitters, antioxidants levels and decreased ATP1A1 activity and gene expression of MMP in the hippocampus in G3 were detected if compared to control. Best improvement in G5 than G4 group was observed. These results were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical studies in hippocampus.

Conclusions
Acidophilus probiotic was able to alleviate learning and memory associated injuries in AD by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction induced by d-galactose and AlCl3. This may be associated with its antioxidant properties.

Beltagy, D., Nawar, N., Mohamed, T., et al. Beneficial consequences of probiotic on mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, (2021).


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Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s easYmer HLA-A*01:01 MHC Tetramers Kit was highlighted in a recent publication that focused on emerging enterococcus pore-forming toxins with MHC/HLA-I as receptors. Check out the abstract and full article below.


Abstract

Enterococci are a part of human microbiota and a leading cause of multidrug resistant infections. Here, we identify a family of Enterococcus pore-forming toxins (Epxs) in E. faecalis, E. faecium, and E. hirae strains isolated across the globe. Structural studies reveal that Epxs form a branch of β-barrel pore-forming toxins with a β-barrel protrusion (designated the top domain) sitting atop the cap domain. Through a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen, we identify human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) complex as a receptor for two members (Epx2 and Epx3), which preferentially recognize human HLA-I and homologous MHC-I of equine, bovine, and porcine, but not murine, origin. Interferon exposure, which stimulates MHC-I expression, sensitizes human cells and intestinal organoids to Epx2 and Epx3 toxicity. Co-culture with Epx2-harboring E. faecium damages human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal organoids, and this toxicity is neutralized by an Epx2 antibody, demonstrating the toxin-mediated virulence of Epx-carrying Enterococcus.

Xiong X., Songhai T., Yang Pan., et al. Emerging enterococcus pore-forming toxins with MHC/HLA-I as receptors. Cell. (2022) vol. 185 7:1157-1171. 10.1016/j.cell.2022.02.002


If you have any questions about the easYmer HLA-A*01:01 MHC Tetramers Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.

Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s Serotonin ELISA Assay Kit was utilized in a recent publication focusing on the beneficial consequences of probiotics on the mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease. Check out the full text and article below.


Background

Abstract
Alzheimer’s (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, causing dementia and brain cells death.

Objectives
This study aimed to assess the ameliorating effect of Acidophilus probiotic against AD induced in rats by d-galactose and AlCl3 injection via evaluating mitochondrial parameter changes in hippocampus.

Methods
This study was carried out on rats were classified into five groups; G1 (control group), G2 (probiotic group), G3 (AD group), G4 (co-treated group) and G5 (post-treated group). By the end of the experiment, some different neurotransmitters, oxidative stress biomarkers, zinc, blood glucose, Na+K−ATPase subunit alpha 1 (ATP1A1), and gene expression of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured.

Results
Significant changes in neurotransmitters, antioxidants levels and decreased ATP1A1 activity and gene expression of MMP in the hippocampus in G3 were detected if compared to control. Best improvement in G5 than G4 group was observed. These results were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical studies in hippocampus.

Conclusions
Acidophilus probiotic was able to alleviate learning and memory associated injuries in AD by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction induced by d-galactose and AlCl3. This may be associated with its antioxidant properties.

Beltagy, D., Nawar, N., Mohamed, T., et al. Beneficial consequences of probiotic on mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, (2021).


If you have any questions about the Serotonin ELISA Assay Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.

Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s ASCA IgG ELISA Kit was highlighted in a recent publication. The aim of this study was to validate an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) in diabetic patients with foot ulcers, after treatment. Check out the abstract and full article below.


Abstract

This work describes the validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) in diabetic patients with foot ulcers, after the treatment with Heberprot-P®. Validation followed regulatory guidelines of US FDA and European Medicine Agency. Minimum required dilution of samples and quality controls were defined using pools of sera from diabetic patients and from healthy donors. Parameters such as cut point, specificity, precision, selectivity, robustness and sample stability were analyzed. The repeatability and intermediate precision percent ranged between 7.93-10.61% and 7.93-11.43 %, respectively, indicating low intra- and inter-assay variation. The specificity was proved by background noise suppression, reaching 100% of inhibition as strong criterion for the specificity of the immunoassay. The validated ELISA is a reliable tool for ASCA detection in human serum after the administration of Heberprot-P®, in order to find immunological reactions associated with latent contamination by host cell proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Perez-Bernal M., Hernandez C., Delgado M., et al. ELISA validation approach for the detection of anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies in patients treated with biopharmaceutical heberprot-P. J. Anal. Pharm. Res. (2021) 10(2):50-56.


If you have any questions about the ASCA IgG ELISA Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.

Recent GA-Map Dysbiosis Test Lx Publications
Check out the most recent publications featuring the GA-Map Dysbiosis Test Lx! These studies used the GA-Map Dysbiosis Test Lx to help determine how the gut microbiota takes part in various diseases such as IBS and axial spondyloarthritis. Find them below:


Irritable bowel syndrome patients who are not likely to respond tofecal microbiota transplantation.

Efficacy and Acceptability of Dietary Therapies in NonConstipated Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Trial of Traditional Dietary Advice, the Low FODMAP Diet andthe Gluten-Free Diet.

Gut dysbiosis associated with worse disease activity and physical function in axial spondyloarthritis.


Principle of Analysis

The GA-map® Dysbiosis Test Lx v2 is a test that maps the intestinal microbiota profile for a selected set of bacteria. The GA-map® platform uses probes that target variable regions (V3 to V7) of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene to characterize and identify bacteria present. The targets are identified in a molecular multiplex assay that utilizes the Single Nucleotide Primer Extension (SNuPE) technology patented by Professor Knut Rudi (US6617138). A unique algorithm takes advantage of all the data generated by the detection of the SnuPE products to determine dysbiosis level in the sample. The algorithm is incorporated in the GA-map® Dysbiosis Analyzer software that accompanies the test.


If you’re looking for more publications featuring the GA-Map Dysbiosis Test Lx, find them here. If you have any questions about this test or any of our other offerings contact us here. 

Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s Serotonin ELISA Assay Kit was highlighted in a recent publication on the selective, ultra-sensitive, and rapid detection of serotonin by an optimized ZnO Nanorod FET biosensor. Check out the abstract and full article below.


Abstract

Background: Fluctuation in serotonin (5-HT) level is an essential manifestation of several neurological disorders. In view of such importance, it is necessary to monitor the levels of 5-HT with good sensitivity, selectivity, affordability and low response time. Zinc oxide (ZnO) based field effect transistors (FET) with attributes like minimized noise levels and large on-off ratio are regarded as emerging high performance biosensor platforms. However, their response is significantly non-linear and there has been no appreciable endeavor for improving the non-linearity. Method: In this paper, we have introduced embedded gate electrode encompassing the channel of the FET which improves the uniformity in electric field line distribution through the electrolyte and proportionately enhances the capture of target biomolecule at ultra-low concentrations, thereby increasing the linearity. Further, we have incorporated the optimized parameters of ZnO nanorods reported previously, for rapid and selective detection of 5-HT. Results: It has been observed that the fabricated ZnO FET biosensor lowers the detection limit down to 0.1fM which is at least one order of magnitude lower than the existing reports. The sensor also has wide linear range from 0.1fM to 1nM with a detection time of about 20 minutes. Conclusion: The proposed zinc oxide nanorod-based sensor can be used as an excellent tool for future diagnosis of neurological disorders.

Sinha K., Chakraborty B., Chaudhury S.S., et al. Selective, Ultra-sensitive and Rapid Detection of Serotonin by Optimized ZnO Nanorod FET Biosensor. IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience.


If you have any questions about the Serotonin ELISA Assay Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.

The Eagle Bioscience’s Noradrenaline Sensitive ELISA was highlighted in a recent publication on how brain injuries instruct bone marrow cellular lineage destination to reduce neuroinflammation. Check out the abstract and full article below.


Abstract

Acute brain injury mobilizes circulating leukocytes to transmigrate into the perivascular space and brain parenchyma. This process amplifies neural injury. Bone marrow hematopoiesis replenishes the exhausted peripheral leukocyte pools. However, it is not known whether brain injury influences the development of bone marrow lineages and how altered hematopoietic cell lineages affect neurological outcome. Here, we showed that bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can be swiftly skewed toward the myeloid lineage in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and experimental ICH models. Lineage tracing revealed a predominantly augmented hematopoiesis of Ly6Clow monocytes infiltrating the ICH brain, where they generated alternatively activated macrophages and suppressed neuroinflammation and brain injury. The ICH brain uses β3-adrenergic innervation that involves cell division cycle 42 to promote bone marrow hematopoiesis of Ly6Clow monocytes, which could be further potentiated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved β3-adrenergic agonist mirabegron. Our results suggest that brain injury modulates HSC lineage development to curb distal brain inflammation, implicating the bone marrow as a unique niche for self-protective neuroimmune interaction that might be exploited to obtain therapeutic effects.

Shi, SX., Shi, K., Liu, Q. Brain injury instructs bone marrow cellular lineage destination to reduce neuroinflammation. Science Translational Medicine. (2021)13:589.


If you have any questions about the Noradrenaline Sensitive ELISA or our other offerings, please contact us here.

The Eagle Bioscience’s Glutathione Total Assay Kit was highlighted in a recent publication on the protective effects of perindopril against indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage through modulation of DDAH-1/ADMA and ACE-2/ANG-(1-7) signaling pathways. Check out the abstract and full article below.


Abstract

Indomethacin is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; however, its clinical utility is accompanied by serious adverse reactions including peptic ulcers. The current study aims to investigate the protective potential of perindopril against indomethacin-induced gastric injury in rats. Perindopril (4 mg/kg) was administered orally for 7 days and indomethacin (60 mg/kg, single oral dose) was administered on the 7th day, 1 h after perindopril administration. Pantoprazole was used as a standard agent. Ulcer index (UI), preventive index ratio (PI), histopathological examination, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers were investigated. Perindopril significantly decreased UI while increased PI and counteracted histopathological aberrations induced by indomethacin. It alleviated indomethacin-induced oxidative stress by lowering NO while increasing GSH content and superoxide dismutase activity. Perindopril significantly downregulated TNF-α and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), while significantly upregulated COX-2, PGE-2, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1), ANG-(1-7), and ACE-2 expression. Together, these findings suggest the gastroprotective effects of perindopril through modulation of DDAH-1/ADMA and ACE-2/ANG-(1-7) signaling.

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Perindopril attenuated gastric histopathological damage.
  • It increased GSH content and SOD activity while decreased NO content.
  • It modulated gastric ADMA and DDAH-1 activity.
  • It reduced TNF-α, while increased COX-2 and PGE-2 expression.
  • It upregulated ACE-2 activity and ANG-(1-7) protein expression.

Mohamed Y.T., Naguib I.A., Abo-Saif A.A., Mohamed W.R. Protective effects of perindopril against indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage through modulation of DDAH-1/ADMA and ACE-2/ANG-(1-7) signaling pathways. Drug Chem. Toxicol. (2021).


If you have any questions about the Glutathione Total Assay Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.

The Eagle Bioscience’s Coronavirus COVID-19 IgG ELISA Assay was recently highlighted in a publication on the decline of Sars-CoV-2 antibodies over 6-month follow-up in obstetrical healthcare workers (HCW). Researchers investigated the longitudinal presence of serum Sars-CoV-2 specific antibodies for both Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) in obstetrical HCWs at a tertiary hospital. Check out the full article below.


Abstract

The Problem

Limited data exists on the temporal trend of the Sars-CoV-2 immunologic response and duration of protection following natural infection. We sought to investigate the presence and duration of Sars-CoV-2 serum antibodies in obstetrical healthcare workers (HCW) on serial assessments over a 6-month period, and to assess rates of vaccine acceptance and reported vaccine side effects among this cohort.

Method of Study

A prospective cohort study of a convenience sample of obstetrical HCWs at a tertiary hospital. Serum Sars-CoV-2 antibodies for Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) were measured longitudinally at four intervals: baseline, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months. Participants completed voluntary surveys on COVID19 testing, high-risk exposures, vaccine acceptance, and vaccine side effects.

Results

One hundred twenty-six of 150 (84%) HCWs who volunteered for participation completed all four blood draws. Prevalence of seropositive HCWs based on positive Sars-CoV-2 IgG antibodies increased from 2% at baseline to 31% at 12 weeks but declined to 21% by 6 months. Forty-two percent (19/43) of the participants considered seropositive for Sars-CoV-2 IgG antibodies at any of the initial three blood draws converted to seronegative status at the 6-month follow-up. Eighty-seven percent (72/83) of participants who responded to a follow-up survey were willing to accept the COVID19 vaccine. Rates of acceptance did not differ by participant antibody status. Those that experienced symptoms with the first injection were more likely to have positive Sars-CoV-2 IgG antibodies (36.8% vs. 9.6%, p = .01).

Conclusion

Sars-CoV-2 IgG antibodies wane over time and may not provide prolonged and robust immune protection. This underscores the importance of vaccination and continued research in this area while the COVID19 pandemic continues.

Kiefer M.K., Allen K.D., Russo J.R., et al. Decline in Sars-CoV-2 antibodies over 6-month follow-up in obstetrical healthcare workers. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. (2021)


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Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s MedFrontier Intact FGF23 Assay was utilized in a recent publication to determine intestinal phosphorus absorption in patients with moderate chronic kidney disease (CDK) and healthy adults. Find the abstract and full text below.


Abstract

Reducing intestinal phosphorus absorption is a cornerstone in CKD-MBD management. Yet, knowledge gaps include how CKD pathophysiology affects intestinal phosphorus absorption. In vivo rodent studies suggest that intestinal phosphorus absorption remains inappropriately normal in early-moderate CKD, despite declining 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D). We measured intestinal phosphorus absorption in patients with moderate CKD versus healthy adults using a direct radiotracer method. Patients with CKD and healthy adults matched for age, sex, and race were enrolled in this 8-day controlled diet study: the first 6 days outpatient and the final 2 days inpatient. Oral and intravenous doses of 33P and serial blood and urine sampling determined intestinal phosphorus absorption during the final 2 days. Secondary outcomes included fasting biochemistries and 24-hour urine phosphorus (uP). In total, n=8 patients with CKD (eGFR=29-55 ml/min per 1.73 m2) and n=8 matched healthy controls completed the study. On a controlled diet, no difference in fractional intestinal phosphorus absorption was detected between patients with CKD and healthy adults (0.69 versus 0.62, respectively; P=0.52), and this was similar for 24-hour uP (884 versus 935 mg/d, respectively; P=0.70). Fractional intestinal phosphorus absorption was not significantly related to 24-hour uP. Patients with CKD had higher serum intact PTH and intact FGF23 and lower 1,25D. The relationship between 1,25D and fractional intestinal phosphorus absorption was not statistically significant. Intestinal phosphorus absorption with typical dietary intake did not differ in patients with moderate CKD compared with controls, despite lower serum 1,25D levels. In this setting, a relationship between 24-hour uP and fractional or absolute intestinal absorption was not evident. Further investigation is needed to determine what factors influence intestinal phosphorus absorption in CKD and the apparent lack of compensation by the intestine to limit phosphorus absorption in the face of declining kidney function and reduced 1,25D. Whether this is evident across a range of dietary phosphorus intakes, as well as CKD severity, also needs to be determined.

Stremke E.R, Wises G.N., Moe S.M., et al. Intestinal Phosphorus Absorbtion in Moderate CKD and Healthy Adults Determined Using a Radioisotopic Tracer. J. Am. Soc. Nephrol. (2021) 32(8):2057-2069


If you have any questions about the MedFrontier Intact FGF23 Assay or our other offerings, please contact us here.