Insulin is a peptide hormone, produced by beta cells of the pancreas. Enzymatic cleavage of proinsulin results in the production of equimolar amounts of insulin and C-peptide in circulation. Insulin is central to regulating carbohydrate and fat metabolism in the body. Excessive amounts of insulin are associated with excess amounts of glucose in the system. High levels of insulin are known to cause weight gain, water bloating, high blood pressure, magnesium deficiency and an increase in the amount of inflammatory compounds in the blood, which causes blood clots and blood vessel damage. Insulin, when insufficiently produced, results in diabetes mellitus. In most cases, a high fasting insulin level is consistent with insulin resistance symptoms, but in some cases, it can be caused by more serious conditions such as Cushing’s syndrome, acromegaly or possibly insulinoma.
Introducing the FGF-19 ELISA Assay Kit and the Mouse FGF-21 ELISA Kit. These kits are an extension of an expansive FGF Assay line of kits Eagle Biosciences already offers. Fibroblast Growth Factors are a family of cell signaling proteins that are involved in a wide variety of biological processes. FGF-19 and FGF-21 belong to a subfamily of these proteins that function as an important role in nutrient metabolism.
More about FGF-19:
The primary source of endocrine FGF-19 is the ileum, bile acids release into the intestine after a meal to induce expression of FGF-19. Circulating FGF-19 plays an important role in maintaining proper bile acid homeostasis. Several pharmacologic studies in hyperglycemic, obese animal models have shown that FGF-19 can improve metabolic rate and lower serum glucose and hepatic triglyceride and cholesterol levels. Like insulin, FGF-19 functions as postprandial hormone to govern hepatic protein synthesis, glycogen synthesis and gluconeogenesis, but does not stimulate lipogenesis.
More about FGF-21:
FGF-21 has been implicated in the regulation of lipid and glucose metabolism under fasting and ketotic conditions. In murine models, FGF-21 is predominantly expressed in liver, but it also expressed in adipose tissue and pancreatic β-cells. FGF-21 stimulates glucose uptake in adipocytes. It also protects animals from diet-induced obesity when overexpressed in transgenic mice and lowers blood glucose and triglyceride levels when administered to diabetic rodents. When administered daily for 6 weeks to diabetic rhesus monkeys, FGF-21 caused a dramatic decline in fasting plasma glucose, fructosamine, triglycerides, insulin, and glucagon. Furthermore, elevated plasma FGF-21 concentrations in humans appear to be related to the presence of hepatic and peripheral insulin resistance.
Eagle Biosciences is now offering a new Human VEGF ELISA Kit from Biomedica. The VEGF ELISA Assay Kit is intended for the quantitative determination of human VEGF in serum, EDTA plasma, and citrate plasma.
VEGF ELISA Highlights:
DAY Test – results in 4.5 h
High sensitivity – measurable values in both serum and plasma
RELIABLE- rigorously validated according to FDA/ICH/EMA guidelines
READY to use – calibrators and controls included
EXCELLENT correlation to existing methods
SMALL sample size – only 10µl sample / well required
Areas of interest:
Metabolic disease (diabetes and diabetic kidney disease, diabetic retinopathy, obesity)
Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF or VEGF-A), is a growth hormone secreted by endothelial cells, ﬁ broblasts, smooth muscle cells, platelets, macrophages, and many other cell types. It belongs to the cysteine-knot growth factor superfamily (1) and has a molecular weight of about 40 kDa. Currently, 17 different VEGF isoforms have been described to be expressed from one single gene. They are produced by alternative promoter usage/initiation or alternative splicing/proteolysis after protein translation. The N-terminal region is responsible for receptor binding and conserved among all VEGF isoforms. In contrast, residues of the C-terminus differ between isoforms and determine protein length and properties: binding to co-receptor Neuropilin-1 (NRP1) or to extracellular matrix (ECM), agonist/antagonist of angiogenesis. Most isoforms result from the common transcripts: VEGF111, VEGF121, VEGF145, VEGF165, VEGF189 and VEGF206. Additionally, a third VEGF variant (VEGFAx), that demonstrates pro- and anti-apoptotic properties, was described. Thus, vascularization is tightly controlled by the balance of various splice variants, their availability and concentration, whereas isoforms linked to the ECM constitute a reservoir of VEGF that can quickly be shed to circulating forms. One of the most potent pro-angiogenic isoforms is VEGF165a. After secretion, 50-70% of VEGF165a is attached to the extracellular matrix (via heparin binding site), the rest is freely diffusible. It is the most abundant isoform and enhances signaling over the VEGFR2 receptor by additionally binding to its co-receptor Neuropilin-1. VEGF A isoforms are glycosylated, homodimeric proteins. Two anti-parallel monomers are linked by intermolecular disulfide bonds whereas eight cysteine residues form a knot-like structure at one end of each monomer. However, heterodimerization with PLGF has been described as well.
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LEUCINE-RICH ALPHA-2-GLYCOPROTEIN (LRG) ELISA Now Available!
Austrian supplier Biomedica has released a new ELISA, the Leucine-Rich Alpha-2-Glycoprotein or LRG for short. The LRG ELISA Assay kit is intended for the quantitative determination of human LRG in serum, EDTA plasma, heparin plasma, and citrate plasma.
LRG (leucine-rich alpha-2-glycoprotein) is a glycoprotein with a molecular mass of 38.2 kDa. It is encoded by the human gene LRG-1 which is mapped on chromosome 19 at the cytogenetic band 19p13.3. The protein LRG (or also named LRG1) runs at approximately 50 kDa under reducing conditions, as it contains a carbohydrate content of 23%. LRG is the founding member of the family of leucine-rich repeat proteins. The mature protein consists of 312 amino acids, from Val36 to Gln347, with a leucine content of 66 amino acids. LRG is folded to eight leucine-rich repeat (LRR) domains of 22 amino acid length, and a C-terminal LRRCT domain with 49 amino acid length. Human LRG shows 62.5% sequence identity with mouse LRG, and 60.7% with rat LRG.
LRG binds to the TGFβ accessory receptor endoglin, and in the presence of TGFβ1 this leads to the induction of the TβRII-ALK1-Smad1/5/8 signaling pathway. TGFβ1 therefore promotes binding of LRG to the proangiogenic ALK1 but inhibits the interaction with angiostatic ALK5. Induced signaling leads to endothelial cell proliferation and blood vessel outgrowth.
Like many other family members of the leucine-rich repeat (LRR) family, LRG has multiple binding partners. LRG directly interacts with the mitochondrial electron transfer protein cytochrome c, whereas the physiological relevance of this interaction is not yet known. LRG further binds to TGFβ1, the most frequently expressed TGFβ isoform.
The tissue distribution of LRG varies, with high-level expression in the liver, lower expression in the heart, and minimal expression in spleen and lung. LRG is expressed during hematopoiesis. It plays a role in the innate immune system as it is upregulated during neutrophil differentiation; LRG is packed into peroxidase-negative granules of human neutrophils and then secreted upon activation to modulate the microenvironment. Differential expression of LRG is further associated with certain carcinomas, neurodegenerative disease, aging or autoimmune disease. In addition, studies have demonstrated an association between cardiac remodeling (hypertrophy, fibrosis, abnormal vasculature, heart failure) and reduced expression of LRG.
LRG is involved in cell proliferation and immune response, in cell migration, neovascularization and apoptosis. It is a proangiogenic factor which is involved in the regulation of the TGFβ signaling pathway. Up-regulation of LRG is described in response to acute phase response in hepatocytes.
LRG is potentially a biomarker for a variety of diseases e.g. as inflammatory biomarker for autoimmune diseases such as rheumatoid arthritis and inflammatory bowel disease. Numerous groups have shown that LRG is increased in various immune-related diseases such as psoriasis, juvenile idiopathic arthritis, Kawasaki disease, appendicitis, and cancers, indicating that LRG elevation is not only limited to autoimmune diseases. In addition, LRG may serve as a biomarker for several other disease conditions such as heart failure, and diabetes-related complications. Plasma Leucine-Rich α-2-Glycoprotein has also been demonstrated to predict cardiovascular disease risk in end-stage renal disease. Leucine-rich α-2-glycoprotein is highly expressed in the brain and it is possible to distinguish idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH) from other neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer disease by measuring LRG in cerebrospinal fluid.
We, at Eagle Biosciences, Inc. are rapidly expanding our selection of Coronavirus Assays by welcoming two new research kits! With the ongoing pandemic, it’s more important now than ever that we continue to offer the highest quality assays to our customers. Here are our newest additions;
The Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 (RBD) IgG ELISA Assay Kit is manufactured in Germany by Mediagnost. This assay is a highly specific enzyme immunoassay for the detection of IgG antibodies directed against SARS-CoV-2-S1 Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) in human blood. In this assay the recombinant Receptor Binding Domain (RBD) of SARS-CoV-2 S1 spike protein, which binds the ACE2 receptor, is used. The use of RBD increases the specificity of the assay since the domain is identical with SARS-CoV but not with MERS-CoV for example. Antibodies directed against the RBD neutralize both virus strains SARS-CoV and SARS-CoV-2.
Size: 1×96 wells Incubation Time: 2 hours 40 minutes Sample Type: Serum and Plasma Sample Size: 100 µl Controls Included
To learn more about the Anti-SARS-CoV-2 S1 (RBD) IgG ELISA Assay click here*
The Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (S1, S2, N) IgG ELISA Assay Kit is manufactured in Germany by Generic Assays. This assay is a module based Enzyme Immunoassay for the confirmation of positive IgG antibodies against SARS coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) in the first screening. The Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (S1, S2, N) IgG ELISA Assay Kit determines the specificity of antibodies against the main immunodominant antigens (Spike Glycoprotein 1, Spike Glycoprotein 2, Nucleocapsid) of SARS-CoV-2 in human serum or plasma. This test kit consists of modules separately coated with the major antigens of the virus as seen in the illistration below:
Size: 96 wells (24 samples x 4) Incubation Time: 2 hours Sample Type: Serum or Plasma Number Of Tests Per Kit: 24 (22 samples + controls) Sample Size: 50 µl Controls Included
To learn more about the Anti-SARS-CoV-2 (S1, S2, N) IgG ELISA Assay Kit click here*
Check out our entire Coronavirus Series here or contact us with any questions or inquires
*These kits are for research use only and should not be used for diagnostic procedures.
Eagle Biosciences, Inc. is excited to announce the launch of two new assays to help with the growing epidemic of the COVID-19 virus that is spreading worldwide. The COVID-19 IgG and IgM ELISA’s are successfully validated assays for the qualitative detection of novel coronavirus infected pneumonia cases, suspected clustering cases, and other new coronaviruses in serum or plasma samples (COVID-19) through measurement of the COVID-19 IgM or IgG antibodies.
Assay Background 2019 novel coronavirus (COVID-19) is a single-stranded RNA coronavirus. Comparisons of the genetic sequences of is virus have shown similarities to SARS-CoV and bat coronaviruses. In humans, coronaviruses cause respiratory infections. Coronaviruses are composed of several proteins including the spike (S), envelope (E), membrane (M), and nucleocapsid (N). Results suggest that the spike protein retains sufficient affinity to the Angiotensin converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) receptor to use it as a mechanism of cell entry. Human to human transmission of coronaviruses is primarily thought to occur among close contacts via respiratory droplets generated by sneezing and coughing. IgM is the first immunoglobulin to be produced in response to an antigen and will be primarily detectable during the early onset of the disease.
Assay Principle These COVID-19 IgG and IgM ELISA assay kits are designed, developed, and produced for the qualitative measurement of the COVID-19 IgM or COVID-19 IgG antibody in serum. The assays utilizes the “IgM capture” or “IgG capture” methods on microplate based enzyme immunoassay technique.
Assay controls and samples are added to the microtiter wells of a microplate that was coated with an anti-human IgM or IgG specific antibodies. After the first incubation period, the unbound protein matrix is removed with a subsequent washing step. A horseradish peroxidase (HRP) labeled recombinant COVID-19 antigen is added to each well. After an incubation period, an immunocomplex of Anti-hIgM or Anti-hIgG antibody – human COVID-19 IgM or IgG antibody – HRP labeled COVID-19 antigen is formed if there is novel coronavirus IgM or IgG antibody present in the tested materials. The unbound tracer antigen is removed by the subsequent washing step. HRP-labeled COVID-19 antigen tracer bound to the well is then incubated with a substrate solution in a timed reaction and then measured in a spectrophotometric microplate reader. The enzymatic activity of the tracer antigen bound to the coronavirus IgM of IgG on the wall of the microtiter well is proportional to the amount of the coronavirus IgM or IgG antibody level in the tested materials
Vanin-1 is an epithelial ectoenzyme activating the conversion of pantetheine into pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) and cysteamine and thus is involved in the regulation of oxidative stress and inflammation.
Why is Vanin-1 important?
The highest levels of Vanin-1 expression is assigned to renal tubular epithelial cells. Hence, Vanin-1 released from renal cells can be detected in the urine. Pre-clinical and clinical studies demonstrate that Vanin-1 is an early biomarker of renal tubular damage in drug-induced acute kidney injury, obstructive nephropathy, and diabetic nephropathy. In fact, Vanin-1 has as superior predictive value for acute kidney injury than established markers KIM-1, NGAL, or NAG .
Comparison of human urine Vanin-1 values in apparently healthy individuals and individuals with kidney disease:
Areas of Interest:
Acute kidney injury
Drug-induced acute kidney injury
Optimized for human urine samples
Highly SPECIFIC and DEFINED characterized antibodies
RELIABLE rigorously validated according to FDA guidelines
QUICK one-step ELISA
Eagle Biosciences offers the first fully validated human Vanin-1 assays in a simple-to-use ELISA:
Contact us for more information about our Vanin-1 related assay kits.
Eagle Biosciences will be at ASN Kidney Week in Washington, DC!
Stop by booth #2005 to learn more about Vanin-1, Klotho, Intact FGF23 and other assays that could help you with your kidney related research! We’ll be there to answer any questions you may have, or stop and say hi! We love seeing our customers!
Eagle Biosciences is excited to announce the addition of several new ELISA assay kits. These new assays cover a broad range of immunology research areas, including autoimmune diseases, cardiovascular diseases and cancer immunology. The majority of these kits are available in 1×96 and 2×96 well sizes.
Eagle Biosciences is excited to announce some new product offerings from Svar Life Science. These new products include a C4d ELISA Kit and a Total Complement ELISA Kit.
Svar is a Swedish Life Science company that has been providing diagnostic laboratory services for nearly 30 years. Founded as Euro Diagnostic in 1992, the company rebranded in 2018 to Svar, which means “answers” in Swedish. They specialize in autoimmunity, inflammatory diseases and oncology. In addition to providing dedicated laboratory services, they produce cell based assays and immunoassays.
The Complement C4d ELISA Assay Kit is intended for the semi-quantitative determination of C4d in human plasma. The complement system is an essential part of the immune system that assists antibodies and phagocytes in clearing cellular debris, promoting inflammation and attacking pathogen cell membranes. The C4d protein is a product of the classical and lectin pathways of the complement system. C4d as a biomarker is associated with antibody-mediated rejection, as well as with diagnosing and monitoring Systematic Lupus Erythematous (SLE) and other autoimmmune diseases.
The Total Complement Functional Screen ELISA used for the qualitative determination of functional classical, MBL, and alternative complement pathways in human serum. This kit combines principles of the hemolytic assay for complement activation with the use of labeled antibodies specific for neoantigen produced as a result of complement activation. The amount of neoantigen generated is proportional to the functional activity of complement pathways.
Contact us for more information about these or any of our other Svar products