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Why measure zonulin?

The zonulin biomarker is a pre-haptoglobin (pre-HP2) protein found in the gut. It is responsible for the permeability of the mucosal barrier of the intestines. When zonulin binds to the epithelial cells of the intestines a signal cascade is induced. This cascade disassembles the paracellular tight junctions of the intestinal wall. The tight junctions of the intestinal walls are one of two ways that allow molecules to transfer from the gut lumen to the bloodstream and vice versa. When zonulin levels in the gut increase and go out of balance, these junctions open wider and stay open longer. These widened entry points allow larger macromolecules into the bloodstream or into the gut lumen. The molecules that pass through these breaches can increase the body’s natural immune reaction, causing inflammation and a number of autoimmune diseases.

Diseases Associated with increased Zonulin levels:

  • Type-1 Diabetes
  • Rheumatoid Arthritis
  • Celiac Disease
  • Liver Disease 

The Eagle Biosciences 8-Isoprostane ELISA Assay Kit was utilized in a recent research project. This kit is part of our Oxidative Stress Assay Kit line which is a line of highly sensitive and specific assays used to detect a variety of samples in serum, plasma, tissue, urine, and saliva.

Effect of flavoring chemicals on free radical formation in electronic cigarette aerosols

Background

Flavoring chemicals, or flavorants, have been used in electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) since their inception; however, little is known about their toxicological effects. Free radicals present in e-cigarette aerosols have been shown to induce oxidative stress resulting in damage to proliferation, survival, and inflammation pathways in the cell. Aerosols generated from e-liquid solvents alone contain high levels of free radicals but few studies have looked at how these toxins are modulated by flavorants.

Conclusions

Our results suggest that flavoring agents play an important role in either enhancing or inhibiting the production of free radicals in flavored e-cigarette aerosols. This information is important for developing regulatory strategies aimed at reducing potential harm from e-cigarettes.

Bitzer, Zachary T, et al. “Effect of Flavoring Chemicals on Free Radical Formation in Electronic Cigarette Aerosols.” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 112, 20 May 2017, p. 200., doi:10.1016/j.freeradbiomed.2017.10.315.

A next generation cancer therapy helps immune cells detect, and destroy cancer cells. This therapy works by evading two mechanisms that cancer cells use to evade macrophages, cells whose job it is to eat and destroy cancerous cells.

“The researchers [at Brigham and Women’s Hospital] tested the supramolecular therapeutic in animal models of aggressive forms of breast cancer and skin cancer, comparing their drug directly with a drug currently available in the clinic. Mice that were untreated formed large tumors by Day 10. Mice treated with currently available therapies showed decreased tumor growth. But mice treated with the new supramolecular therapy had complete inhibition of tumor growth. The team also reported an increase in survival and a significant reduction in metastatic nodes.”

This treatment is skill in the testing phases but it hold potential for future applications.

Read More.

The Eagle Biosciences Humanized Anti HER-2 ELISA Assay Kit detect levels of Trastuzumab (Herceptin) in human serum and plasma.

What is HER-2?

The Human Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor 2 gene (HER-2) can play a role in the development of breast cancer. This gene codes for a protein that are receptors on breast cells and helps the cell grow and divide normally. When regulation of the HER-2 gene gets disrupted or too many copies of the HER-2 gene are present in the cell, this can lead to an increased amount of the HER-2 protein on the cell surface. This causes the cell to start growing out of control and can develop into a tumor. Trastuzumab (Herceptin) is a drug that blocks the ability of the HER-2 protein on the surface of cells to receive chemical signals telling the cell to grow. This can slow or stop the growth of these breast cells and can also signal the immune system that these cells need to be destroyed. Measuring the levels of this drug in serum or plasma are important for evaluating the effectiveness of drug therapy.

Key Advantages of EagleBio’s Anti HER-2 ELISA

  • Excellent Specificity
  • High Sensitivity
  • Precise results under 2 hours

Eagle Bioscience’s Calprotectin ELISA Assay Kit was recently used in a study dealing with bone loss in relation to arthritis and other inflammatory diseases. The Calprotectin ELISA Assay is part of our line of Gastrointestinal Assays which is a line of highly sensitive and specific kits used to detect the concentration of a variety of samples in serum, plasma, tissue, urine, and saliva.

Blood-induced bone loss in murine hemophilic arthropathy is prevented by blocking the iRhom2/ADAM17/TNFα pathway

Abstract:

Hemophilic arthropathy (HA) is a debilitating degenerative joint disease that is a major manifestation of the bleeding disorder Hemophilia A. HA typically begins with hemophilic synovitis (HS) that resembles inflammatory arthritides such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and frequently results in bone loss in patients. A major cause of RA is inappropriate release of the pro-inflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) by the TNFα convertase (TACE, also referred to as ADAM17) and its regulator, iRhom2. Therefore, we hypothesized that iRhom2/ADAM17-dependent shedding of TNFα also has a pivotal role in mediating HA. Here, we show that addition of blood or its components to macrophages activates iRhom2/ADAM17-dependent TNFα shedding, providing the premise to study the activation of this pathway by blood in the joint in vivo. For this, we turned to hemophilic FVIII-deficient mice (F8-/- mice), which develop a hemarthrosis following needle puncture injury with synovial inflammation and significant osteopenia adjacent to the affected joint. We found that needle puncture-induced bleeding leads to increased TNFα levels in the affected joint of F8-/- mice. Moreover, inactivation of TNFα or iRhom2 in F8-/- mice reduced the osteopenia and synovial inflammation that develops in this mouse model for HA. Taken together, our results suggest that blood entering the joint activates the iRhom2/ADAM17/TNFα pathway, thereby contributing to osteopenia and synovitis in mice. Therefore, this pro-inflammatory signaling pathway could emerge as an attractive new target to prevent osteoporosis and joint damage in HA patients.

Haxaire, Coline, et al. “Blood-Induced Bone Loss in Murine Hemophilic Arthropathy Is Prevented by Blocking the iRhom2/ADAM17/TNFα Pathway.” Blood, 18 May 2018, 

Multiple genes have been found to be linked to the cause Alzheimer’s disease and result in the disease in different ways. This connection can help better identify targets for prevention therapy by recognizing the different ways the genes lead to neuronal death.

Neurons, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and microglial cells are all different cell types found in the brain, specific gene variants had different proportions of these cells in the brain. Scientists at the Washington School of Medicine in St. Louis are working on figuring out how each gene is different and what it does in the brain can help the understanding of how it leads to disease and the best ways to treat it.

References:

Dryden J. Genes linked to Alzheimer’s contribute to damage in different ways. The Source. June 8, 2018.

Eagle Bio’s 25(OH) Vitamind D ELISA Assay Kit was used in a recent study. The Vitamin D 25(OH) ELISA is a quick, simple, and sensitive assay for the quantitative determination of Vitamin D in human serum and plasma. This assay is a part of our Bone Metabolism Assay Kit line, an assay line that offers a comprehensive product group for analyzing  the concentration of a variety of samples in serum, plasma, tissue,saliva, and urine.

Publication Citing Eagle Bio’s 25(OH) Vitamind D ELISA:

Common Variants rs11191548 near the CYP17A1 Gene is associated with Hypertension and the Serum 25(OH) D levels in Han Chinese

Zhang, Ning et al. (2018). Common Variants rs11191548 near the CYP17A1 Gene is associated with Hypertension and the Serum 25(OH) D levels in Han Chinese. Journal of Human Genetics. 63:731-737.

Summary:

This study investigated the relationship between hypertension and serum 25(OH) Vitamin D levels in Han Chinese in association with genetic varints in the CYP17A1 gene. It was determined that the rs11191548 mutation in the CYP17A1 gene is associated with higher 25(OH) Vitamin D levels in those with hypertension. 

Eagle announces the introduction of an Intact MMAF ADC ELISA Assay Kit to its line of existing Antibody Drug Kits. This Intact MMAE Kit is the first of its kind, allowing for the measurement of conjugated antibody in a variety of sample types.

What is MMAF (Monomethyl auristatin F)?

MMAF is a new type of targeted therapy for cancer treatment. It is a synthetic antineoplastic agent that is a toxic compound; when linked to a monoclonal antibody (mAb) it gets directed to cancer cells. This drug treatment targets tumors and inhibits their growth by blocking the polymerization of tubulin in the cell. Measuring circulating specific ADC’s is importatnt for pre-clinical and clinical studies for the discovery of unique, targeted, safer, effective cancer treatments.

Key Advantages to Eagle Biosciences’s Antibody Drug Conjugates Assays:

  • Excellent Sensitity
  • Simple Procedure
  • Wide Dynamic Range
  • Quick Results: Under 3 hours
  • Versatile: multiple sample types and species

Related Kits:

MMAF Antibody Drug Conjugate (ADC) ELISA Assay Kit

MMAE Antibody Drug Conjugate (ADC) ELISA Assay Kit

Intact MMAE ADC ELISA Assay Kit

image by the Guardian

A ground breaking gene therapy has the potential to help
mend damaged nerves in the spin and help those paralyzed by spinal cord
injuries. This new therapy works by utilizing an enzyme called chondroitinase.
This enzyme has the ability to break down scar tissue and by doing so allows
severed nerves to connect again.

Rats treated with this therapy for a period of time were
able to relearn some basic skill such as grabbing with their limbs. The therapy
can treat large areas of the spinal cord at once, and the hope is that one day
the treatment will be able to help people with spinal cord injuries regain the
ability to perform some daily tasks such as using utensils, picking up things,
and writing.

Though this therapy is a breakthrough in regenerative
medicine there is still some hurdles that need to be cleared before it can be
brought to human trials. The research team needs to prove the treatment can
work effectively in larger mammals before bringing it to human trials. They
also want to find a way to stop the therapy for working once the spine is
healed.  

Read More.

References:

1. Sample Ian. “Paws and play: gene treatment helps rats with
spinal cord injuries regain their nerve.” The Guardian. 14 Jun 2018.  

The Eagle Biosciences DM-1 Antibody Drug Conjugate ELISA Assay Kit was recently used in a study researching targeted cancer therapies. This kit is a part of our line of Cancer Biomarker Kits. These cancer biomarker kits are highly sensitive and specific assays tests for quantifying of specific biomarkers in various sample types for university, pharmaceutical, or clinical research.

Levels of DM-1 conjugate (Trastuzumab emtansine) were determined usign Eagle Biosciences DM-1 Antibody Drug Conjugate ELISA Assay Kit. 

Read More.

Reference:

[1]. Verkade, J.M.M.; WiJdeven, M.A.; van Geel, R.; Janssen, B.M.G.; van Berkel, S.S.; van Delft, F.L. A Polar Sulfamide Spacer Significantly Enhances the Manufacturability, Stability, and Therapeutic Index of Antibody-Drug Conjugates. Antibodies 2018 7:12.