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Gluten response in celiac patients could lead to diagnostic test

Science Daily

A study led by ImmunastaT Inc. could provide significant advances in diagnostic testing for celiac disease. The current testing requires patients to ingest gluten over an extended period of time, sometimes up to several months, before having an invasive procedure to sample the small intestine. During this time, the patient will experience the symptoms related to celiac, including nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and abdominal pain. The new test involves researchers testing for immune markers related to celiac disease in blood samples. Initial research shows that these markers are present and detectable in blood samples in just a few hours after gluten consumption. Interleukin-2 (IL-2) was found to be the most prominent cytokine to appear shortly after gluten ingestion. Researchers believe that celiac symptoms are caused by gluten-specific CD4+ T-cells are being reactivated by the presence of these markers.

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Walter and Eliza Hall Institute. “Gluten response in celiac patients could lead to diagnostic test: Exciting step towards world-first blood test for diagnosing coeliac diseaes.” ScienceDaily. ScienceDaily, 7 August 2019. <www.sciencedaily.com/releases/2019/08/190807144403.htm>.

Journal Reference:
Gautam Goel, Jason A. Tye-Din, Shuo-Wang Qiao, Amy K. Russell, Toufic Mayassi, Cezary Ciszewski, Vikas K. Sarna, Suyue Wang, Kaela E. Goldstein, John L. Dzuris, Leslie J. Williams, Ramnik J. Xavier, Knut E. A. Lundin, Bana Jabri, Ludvig M. Sollid, Robert P. Anderson. Cytokine release and gastrointestinal symptoms after gluten challenge in celiac disease. Science Advances, 2019; 5 (8): eaaw7756 DOI: 10.1126/sciadv.aaw7756


Eagle Biosciences offers highly sensitive assays for detection of IL-2 in human plasma and serum samples:
Human IL-2 High Sensitivity ELISA Assay Kit
Human IL-2 ELISA Assay Kit

We also offer IL-2 Assay Ready Cells from our iLite line:
iLite IL-2 Assay Ready Cells

If you have any questions about these products, or if you are looking for a specific cytokine product, contact us.

The Eagle Biosciences NT-proCNP ELISA Assay Kit (manufactured by Biomedica) was used in a recent study published out of the University of Otago in Christchurch, New Zealand. This kit is used for the quantitative determination of NT-proCNP in human serum and plasma (EDTA, citrate, heparin). CNP, C-type natriuretic peptide, along with other natriuretic peptides, plays a role in regulatory mechanisms including blood pressure and body fluid homeostasis. It also serves as a biomarker.

Plasma C-Type Natriuretic Peptide: Emerging Applications in Disorders of Skeletal Growth

Abstract


Although studies in experimental animals show that blood levels of C-type natriuretic peptide (CNP) and its bioinactive aminoterminal propeptide (NTproCNP) are potential biomarkers of long bone growth, a lack of suitable assays and appropriate reference ranges has limited the application of CNP measurements in clinical practice. Plasma concentrations of the processed product of proCNP, NTproCNP – and to a lesser extent CNP itself – correlate with concurrent height velocity throughout all phases of normal skeletal growth, as well as during interventions known to affect skeletal growth in children. Since a change in levels precedes a measurable change in height velocity during interventions, measuring NTproCNP may have predictive value in clinical practice. Findings from a variety of genetic disorders affecting CNP signaling suggest that plasma concentrations of both peptides may be helpful in diagnosis, provided factors such as concurrent height velocity, feedback regulation of CNP, and differential changes in peptide clearance are considered when interpreting values. An improved understanding of factors affecting plasma levels, and the availability of commercial kits enabling accurate measurement using small volumes of plasma, can be expected to facilitate potential applications in growth disorders including genetic causes affecting the CNP signaling pathway.

Espiner, E.; Prickett, T.; Olney, Robert; (2019). Plasma C-Type Natriuretic Peptide: Emerging Applications in Disorders of Skeletal Growth. Horm. Res. Paediatr., 90:345–357. DOI: 10.1159/000496544

Contact us for more information about this kit or our other natriuretic peptide assay kits.

DotDiver2.0 is a fully automatic processor for Dot/LINE immunoassays manufactured by German biotech Generic Assays.

DotDiver2.0 processes and evaluates assay kits with minimal user intervention. It can perform up to 24 tests at one time. It features bar code identification for test strips and cartridges. DotDiver provides digitized results, and it is LIMS ready or can be set up to print on paper. All you have to do is load the tests and press start, no need to monitor while it’s running. The system requires minimal maintenance and takes up little space.

DotDiver2.0 assays are available for:

  • Celiac disease / Crohn‘s disease
  • Pernicious anemia
  • Neuropathies
  • Anti-phospholipid syndrome
  • Systemic lupus erythematosus
  • Vasculitis
  • Nephritis
  • Myositis
  • Scleroderma
  • Autoimmune hepatitis

For more information, see the DotDiver 2.0 Immunoassay Processor product page.

Contact us for more information about the DotDiver2.0 or Dot assays.

Comparison between the AroCell TK 210 ELISA and TK1 enzyme activity assays

AroCell recently completed a comparison between their 210 ELISA with the ABCAM TK1 ELISA and the Gold-Standard Tritiated TK1 Activity Assay to confirm the diagnostic accuracy of each kit. The results found that the AroCell kit is an accurate assay for the determination of thymidine kinase 1.

Read the report here.

Eagle Biosciences offers the AroCell TK 210 ELISA as part of our product catalog:
TK 210 (Thymidine Kinase 1 (TK1)) ELISA Assay Kit

Contact us for more information about this or other enzyme activity assays.

What are MHC molecules?

Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules play an important role in the acquired immune system of vertebrates. MHC molecules present peptides derived from pathogens on the cell surface so that T-cells can determine the appropriate immune response. The MHC also plays a role in mediating leukocyte interactions, determining compatibility for organ transplants, and determining autoimmune disease susceptibility. In humans, the MHC complex is also known as the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) complex.

The peptide-MHC (pMHC) interaction to cognate T-cell receptors (TcR) occurs rapidly and at low affinity. Tetramerizing these molecules on a streptavidin scaffold engages multiple TcRs expressed on a given T cell, which stabilizes the reaction and allows for specific T cell staining. pMHC monomers and tetramers can also be used for purification and manipulation of T cells.

Research Applications

MHC monomers and tetramers can be used for selection and proliferation of specific T cells, allowing researchers to isolate specific viral or tumor related antigens. These antigens can be reintroduced to augment the immune system. They are also used in organ transplant research to help reduce the risk of graft-versus-host disease. Additionally, researchers in cancer immunotherapy and vaccine development are exploring various MHC multimer applications to further their fields.

What Eagle Biosciences Offers

We offer a wide range of pMHC monomers and tetramers through our partner, ImmunAware, including easYmer MHC tetramer kits. All of the MHC molecules in are catalog are biotinylated, meaning all of the pMHC monomers can be tetramerized with the laboratory’s choice of strepatavidin label.

View all of our monomer, tetramer, and easYmer kits here.

For more information or assistance finding a specific product, please contact us.

Through our collaboration with ImmunAware, we are excited to offer a new range of products: easYmer MHC Tetramers. This product allows laboratories to easily generate monomers using their choice of peptide. The resulting monomers can also be easily tetramerized using fluorophore conjugated streptavidin. These tetramers can then be used to stain cognate T cells for flow cytometry. easYmers allow end users to rapidly produce large quantities of pMHC monomers with a single epitope, to produce and screen pMHC monomers with many different peptide epitope candiates in parallel, and to validate peptide HLA bonding.

Click here to view our available easYmer MHC tetramer kits.

If you have questions about easYmers or if you’re looking for a specific kit, contact us and we’ll be happy to assist.

Eagle Biosciences, Inc. is excited to announce that we have partnered with ImmunAware, based in Denmark, to offer their line of easYmer MHC tetramer products in the U.S. and Canada.

About ImmunAware

ImmunAware originated from the Experimental Immunology lab at the University of Copenhagen. They specialize in major histocompatibility complex (MHC) molecules. They offer a broad range of peptide-MHC class I and II complexes as either biotinylated monomers, or as tetramers. Their easYmer product line allows laboratories to generate their own peptide-MHC monomers and tetramers.

About easYmers

easYmers contain an active formulation of peptide receptive HLA-I molecules that facilitates monomer generation. The resulting monomers are easily tetramerized with fluorophore conjugated streptavidin for use in flow cytometry for T-cell analysis. easYmer reagents can also be used to evaluate specific peptide-HLA I binding.

Contact us for more information about easYmer products.

What is Metal Enhanced Fluorescence?

Metal Enhanced Fluorescence (MEF) is based on the reaction of excitation light with electrons of metal nano-structures to generate strong electromagnetic fields, also known as LSPs (localized surfaced plasmons). When LSPs are bound to the surface of the metal nano-structure, it creates a plasmonic structure, which can enhance the signal of the phosphores more than 100 times.

About our FluoBolt™ MEF Assays


Eagle Biosciences proudly offers a line of Metal Enhanced Fluorescence Immunoassays from our partner, Fianostics. These products from the FluoBolt™ line are highly sensitive, single-step assays that require no enzyme substrates. FluoBolt™ MEFs are completely compatible with the 96-well ELISA format and provide a stable signal over time.

We currently offer the following FluoBolt™ MEF Immunoassays:

With many more to come!

Contact us for more information about FluoBolt™ products.

The Eagle Biosciences Mouse / Rat Noradrenaline (Norepinephrine) ELISA was used in a recent study. This highly sensitive assay kit is part of our veterinary and neurobiology product lines. It is intended for the detection of noradrenaline (norepinephrine) in biological samples including serum, plasma, tissue, and cell culture samples of mice and rats.

Renal Denervation and CD161a Immune Ablation Prevent Cholinergic Hypertension and Renal Sodium Retention

Abstract


Cholinergic receptor activation leads to premature development of hypertension and infiltration of pro-inflammatory CD161a+/CD68+ M1 macrophages into the renal medulla. Renal inflammation is implicated in renal sodium retention and the development of hypertension. Renal denervation is known to decrease renal inflammation. To determine the role of CD161a+/CD68+ macrophages and renal sympathetic nerves in cholinergic-hypertension & renal sodium retention. Bilateral renal denervation (RND) and immune ablation of CD161a+ immune cells was performed in young prehypertensive SHR followed by infusion of either saline or nicotine (15mg/kg/day) for two weeks. Immune ablation was conducted by injection of unconjugated azide-free antibody targeting rat CD161a. Blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff plethysmography. Tissues were harvested at the end of infusion. Nicotine induced premature hypertension, renal expression of the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (NKCC2), increases in renal sodium retention, and infiltration of CD161a+/CD68+ macrophages into the renal medulla of animals. All of these effects were abrogated or prevented by RND and ablation of CD161a+ immune cells. Cholinergic activation of CD161a+ positive immune cells leads to the premature development of hypertension in SHR, at least partly, through increased renal expression of NKCC2 and renal sodium retention. Effects on chemotaxis of CD161a+ macrophages to the renal medulla, decreased renal expression of NKCC2, and renal sodium retention appear to play a part in the prevention of cholinergic hypertension as a result of RND. The CD161a+ immune cells are necessary and essential for this pro-hypertensive nicotine-mediated inflammatory response. Cholinergic receptor activation leads to premature development of hypertension and infiltration of pro-inflammatory CD161a+/CD68+ M1 macrophages into the renal medulla. Renal inflammation is implicated in renal sodium retention and the development of hypertension. Renal denervation is known to decrease renal inflammation. To determine the role of CD161a+/CD68+ macrophages and renal sympathetic nerves in cholinergic-hypertension and renal sodium retention. Bilateral renal denervation (RND) and immune ablation of CD161a+ immune cells was performed in young prehypertensive SHR followed by infusion of either saline or nicotine (15mg/kg/day) for two weeks. Immune ablation was conducted by injection of unconjugated azide-free antibody targeting rat CD161a. Blood pressure was monitored by tail cuff plethysmography. Tissues were harvested at the end of infusion. Nicotine induced premature hypertension, renal expression of the sodium-potassium-chloride co-transporter (NKCC2), increases in renal sodium retention, and infiltration of CD161a+/CD68+ macrophages into the renal medulla of animals. All of these effects were abrogated or prevented by RND and ablation of CD161a+ immune cells. Cholinergic activation of CD161a+ positive immune cells leads to the premature development of hypertension in SHR, at least partly, through increased renal expression of NKCC2 and renal sodium retention. Effects on chemotaxis of CD161a+ macrophages to the renal medulla, decreased renal expression of NKCC2, and renal sodium retention appear to play a part in the prevention of cholinergic hypertension as a result of RND. The CD161a+ immune cells are necessary and essential for this pro-hypertensive nicotine-mediated inflammatory response.

Raikwar, NS;Braverman, C;Snyder, PM;Fenton, RA;Meyerholz, DK;Abboud, FM;Harwani, SC; (2019). Renal Denervation and CD161a Immune Ablation Prevent Cholinergic Hypertension and Renal Sodium Retention. Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.. doi:10.1152/ajpheart.00234.2019.

Contact us for more information on this or other veterinary assay products.