The Eagle Bioscience’s Coronavirus COVID-19 IgM ELISA Assay Kit was recently highlighted in a publication about a review on current diagnostic techniques for COVID-19. This review includes techniques such as RT-PCR, ddPCR, LAMP, CRISPR, and immunoassay techniques. To learn more about this publication, read below:


SARS-Cov-2 first appeared in Wuhan, China, in December 2019 and spread all over the world soon after that. Given the infectious nature of SARS-CoV-2, fast and accurate diagnosis tools are important to detect the virus. In this review, we discuss the different diagnostic tests that are currently being implemented in laboratories and provide a description of various COVID-19 kits.

Areas Covered
We summarize molecular techniques that target the viral load, serological methods used for SARS-CoV-2 specific antibodies detection as well as newly developed faster assays for the detection of SARS-CoV-2 in various biological samples.

Expert Opinion
In the light of the widespread pandemic, the massive diagnosis of COVID-19, using various detection techniques, appears to be the most effective strategy for monitoring and containing its propagation.

Jaddaoui, IE., Allali, M., Raoui, S., et al. A review on current diagnostic techniques for COVID-19. Expert Review of Molecular Diagnostics. (2021) 21:2, 141-160.

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The Eagle Bioscience’s TNF-Alpha ELISA Assay Kit was recently utilized in a publication about the detection rate and genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. and its relation to corporate TNF-Alpha in elderly Egyptians.


Elderly individuals are considered an at-risk population, susceptible to enteric infections; and Cryptosporidium spp. is an apicomplexan protozoan considered to be one of the most common protozoa causing diarrhea. Cryptosporidiosis causes elevation of many pro-inflammatory cytokines like tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) which may play a role in pathogenesis of the disease.

This study was designed for detection and genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. in elderly patients and the relationship of infection with copro TNF-α. Diagnosis was by evaluation of permanent acid-fast cold Kinyoun’s (AF) staining, immunochromatographic detection (ICT), and ELISA in comparison to molecular diagnosis as gold standard diagnostic method.

Subjects and Methods
Stool samples were collected from 270 elderly patients aged above 60 years old attending outpatient clinics of Internal Medicine Hospital, Cairo University. Sample were examined microscopically by direct wet mount, and AF straining, and then subjected to ICT ELISA and nested PCR (nPCR) assays. Positive samples by nPCR were then subjected to Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RELP) to detect Cryptosporidium genotypes. Corpo-levels of TNF-Alpha were measured to asses their relationship with cryptosporidiosis.

Cryptosporidiosis detection rates of 3.7%, 6.3%, 6.7%, 3.7% were determined by microscopic examination after AF staining, ICT, ELISA and nPCR, respectively. When RFLP was performed on nPCR positive samples, eight and two samples were assigned as genotype 1 and 2, respectively. Moreover, TNF-α was significantly correlated with cryptosporidiosis.

Conclusion: The elderly are highly vulnerable to cryptosporidiosis. Immunodiagnosis and molecular techniques are fundamental for the diagnosis of cryptosporidiosis. Cryptosporidiosis significantly affects copro TNF-α.

Amin, NM., Raafat, A., Morsy, SM. Detection rate and genotyping of Cryptosporidium spp. and its relation to copro TNF-α in elderly Egyptians attending outpatient clinics of Cairo University Hospitals. Parasitologists. (2021)14:77-85

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Anti-Infliximab ELISA

The Eagle Bioscience’s Anti-Infliximab ELISA Assay Kit was recently highlighted in a publication about factors that are associated with reduced infliximab exposure in the treatment of pediatric autoimmune disorders.


Inadequate systemic exposure to infliximab (IFX) is associated with treatment failure. This work evaluated factors associated with reduced IFX exposure in children with autoimmune disorders requiring IFX therapy.

In this single-center cross-sectional prospective study IFX trough concentrations and anti-drug antibodies (ADAs) were measured in serum from children diagnosed with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) (n = 73), juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) (n = 16), or uveitis (n = 8) receiving maintenance IFX infusions at an outpatient infusion clinic in a tertiary academic pediatric hospital. IFX concentrations in combination with population pharmacokinetic modeling were used to estimate IFX clearance. Patient demographic and clinical data were collected by chart review and evaluated for their relationship with IFX clearance.

IFX trough concentrations ranged from 0 to > 40 μg/mL and were 3-fold lower in children with IBD compared to children with JIA (p = 0.0002) or uveitis (p = 0.001). Children with IBD were found to receive lower IFX doses with longer dosing intervals, resulting in dose intensities (mg/kg/day) that were 2-fold lower compared to children with JIA (p = 0.0002) or uveitis (p = 0.02). Use of population pharmacokinetic analysis to normalize for variation in dosing practices demonstrated that increased IFX clearance was associated with ADA positivity (p = 0.004), male gender (p = 0.02), elevated erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) (p = 0.02), elevated c-reactive protein (CRP) (p = 0.001), reduced serum albumin concentrations (p = 0.0005), and increased disease activity in JIA (p = 0.009) and IBD (p ≤ 0.08). No significant relationship between diagnosis and underlying differences in IFX clearance was observed. Multivariable analysis by covariate population pharmacokinetic modeling confirmed increased IFX clearance to be associated with anti-IFX antibody positivity, increased ESR, and reduced serum albumin concentrations.

Enhanced IFX clearance is associated with immunogenicity and inflammatory burden across autoimmune disorders. Higher systemic IFX exposures observed in children with rheumatologic disorders are driven primarily by provider drug dose and interval selection, rather than differences in IFX pharmacokinetics across diagnoses. Despite maintenance IFX dosing at or above the standard recommended range for IBD (i.e., 5 mg/kg every 8 weeks), the dosing intensity used in the treatment of IBD is notably lower than dosing intensities used to treat JIA and uveitis, and may place some children with IBD at risk for suboptimal maintenance IFX exposures necessary for treatment response.

Funk, RS., Shakhnovich, V., Cho, YK., et al. Factors associated with reduced infliximab exposure in the treatment of pediatric autoimmun disorders: a cross-sectional prospective convenience sampling study. Pediatric Rheumatology. (2021) 19:62

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The Eagle Bioscience’s Calprotectin ELISA Assay Kit was highlighted in a recent study! In this publication scientists studied the dose effect of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) fortification on diarrhea and respiratory tract infections in weaned infants with anemia.


The aim of this study was to explore the dose effect of bovine lactoferrin (bLF) fortification on the morbidity of diarrhea and respiratory tract infections in weaned infants with anemia.

A total of 108 infants with anemia, who were exclusively breast fed at 4 to 6 months and weaned and formula fed at 6 to 9 months, were recruited. The eligible infants were randomly assigned to fortified group 0 (FG0), fortified group 1 (FG1), or fortified group 2 (FG2) and were given formula fortified with 0 mg/100 g, 38 mg/100 g, and 76 mg/100 g of bLF, respectively, for 3 mo. The morbidity of diarrhea and respiratory tract infections (RTIs), the duration of respiratory and diarrhea-related illnesses, and the levels of fecal human beta-defensin 2 (HBD-2), cathelicidin LL-37 (LL-37), secretory IgA (sIgA), butyrate, and calprotectin were assessed.

After the exclusion of 12 dropouts, the primary outcome measures, including episodes and duration of diarrhea and RTIs during the intervention, were obtained from 96 infants (35, 33, and 28 in FG0, FG1, and FG2, respectively). Compared with infants in FG0, there was a lower morbidity of rhinorrhea, wheezing, and skin rash among infants in FG1 (P < 0.05) and a lower morbidity of respiratory-related illness and wheezing among infants in FG2 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, a lower morbidity of diarrhea-related illness, diarrhea, vomiting, and nausea was observed among infants in FG2 than those in the other two groups (P < 0.05). In addition, the FG1 infants had a lower morbidity of vomiting and nausea than the FG0 infants (P < 0.05). The HBD-2, LL-37, sIgA, and calprotectin levels were significantly higher whereas the butyrate level was significantly lower in the FG2 infants than in infants in the other two groups after 3 mo of intervention (P < 0.05).

The bLF-fortified formula was effective in reducing the morbidity of diarrhea and RTIs in infants with anemia, with the 76 mg/100 g bLF-fortified formula exhibiting a stronger effect. The bLF fortification could be a new strategy for the prevention of diarrhea and RTIs in infants with anemia.

Chen, K., Jin, S., Chen, H.,et al. Dose effect of bovine lactoferrin fortification on diarrhea and respiratory tract infections in weaned infants with anemia: A randomized, controlled trial. Nutrition. (2021)90:111288

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PTX3 Biomarker Spotlight
Pentraxins are a superfamily of acute phase reactants characterized by a pentameric structure. Pentraxin 3 (PTX3), is locally produced and released by a variety of cell types including macrophages, neutrophils, myeloid-derived mesangial cells, synovial cells, smooth muscle cells, alveolar epithelium, and glial cells. PTX3 is induced in response to either inflammatory cytokines interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) or the selected associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). PTX3 is elevated in critically ill patients, with a gradient from systematic inflammatory response syndrome to septic shock, and in several other diseases, such as myocardial infarction, rheumatoid arthritis, atherosclerosis, small vessel vasculitis and psoriasis.

Oncologists at Queen Mary’s University whether PTX 3 could be a reliable biomarker for detection of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). PDAC is characterized by an intense desmoplastic stroma, laid down by the pancreatic stellate cells (PSC). One of the defining features of PDAC is that there are very few cancer cells. Pancreatic cancer is surprisingly made up of mostly non-cancer cells, which have been co-opted by cancer to build a huge amount of scar tissue or stroma around the cancer, providing a strong defense for the cancer cells. The researchers found that PTX3 is a putative stromally-derived biomarker for PDAC which warrants further testing in prospective, larger, multi-center cohorts and within clinical trials targeting stroma.

To read more about this study, click here.

Related Products

Pentraxin-3 ELISA Assay Kit
High Sensitive CRP ELISA Assay Kit

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Cortisol ELISA Assay Kit

Eagle Biosciences is excited to announce the new Cortisol Saliva ELISA Assay Kit. The kit is intended for the quantitative determination of cortisol in human saliva.

Why Measure Cortisol?

Cortisol is the most abundant circulating steroid and the major glucocorticoid secreted by the adrenal cortex. Cortisol is physiologically effective in blood pressure maintenance and anti-inflammatory activity. It is also involved in calcium absorption, gluconeogenesis as well as the secretion of gastric acid and pepsin. It is increased under stress situations, physical exercise and external administration of ACTH. Most circulating cortisol is bound to cortisol binding globulin or transcortin and albumin. The free cortisol, which is considered the active part of blood, is about 1–2%. In the absence of appreciable amounts of the cortisol binding proteins in saliva, salivary cortisol is considered to be free and shows a diurnal rhythm with the highest levels in the morning and the lowest levels at night.

Measurement of cortisol levels in general can be used as an indicator of adrenal function and the differential diagnosis of Addison’s and Cushing’s diseases as well as adrenal hyperplasia and carcinoma.

Check out the benefits of Cortisol Saliva ELISA Assay Kit:

  • NO SHAKING required
  • ROOM TEMPERATURE incubation

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The Eagle Bioscience’s ACTH ELISA Assay Kit was recently highlighted in a publication about the cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in infants after receiving corticosteroids following cataract surgery.


Cushingoid features are occasionally encountered in infants after pediatric cataract surgery. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether the use of topical glucocorticoids (GCs) following congenital cataract surgery can result in endogenous adrenal suppression and/or systemic side effects similar to those seen with systemic steroids.

A prospective study was performed on 20 infants with bilateral congenital cataract. All infants received a single subconjunctival betamethasone injection of 1 mg at the end of surgery in addition to topical dexamethasone eye drops 1 mg/ml for 6 weeks. All infants had anthropometric measurements and blood pressure measurements, serum cortisol, and ACTH level measurements before surgery and 2 months after. In addition, the total administered glucocorticoid adjusted per weight was calculated.

The mean age of the infants was 4.93 ± 2.58 months. Thirteen were males (65%). The total administered glucocorticoid dose was 18.7 mg and the mean cumulative dexamethasone equivalent dose administered was 2.75 ± 1.31 mg/kg. There was a statistically significant increase in the adjusted weight percentile for age (P = 0.009). Both the systolic and diastolic blood pressure were significantly elevated (P = 0.005 and P = 0.025 respectively). There was a statistically significant reduction in both the morning and afternoon serum ACTH levels (P = 0.023 and P = 0.014). The reduction in serum cortisol levels was statistically non-significant.

Topical steroids following pediatric cataract surgery can result in both subclinical and clinical changes in the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis that can be easily overlooked and need careful attention and follow-up.

Aly, A., Gouda, J., Awadein, A. et al. Serum cortisol and adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) in infants receiving topical and subconjunctival corticosteroids following cataract surgery. Graefes Arch Clin Exp Ophthalmol (2021).

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Endostatin Biomarker Spotlight

Endostatin, a 20-kDa C-terminal proteolytic fragment of collagen XVIII, is an endogenous angiogenesis inhibitor localized in the vascular basement membrane in various organs. The biological functions of the endostatin-network involve SPARC, thrombospondin-1, glycosaminoglycans, collagens, and integrins. It is expressed during the progression of renal fibrosis in tubular cells of injured tissue. In renal micro-vascular disease, observed in late stages of patients with chronic kidney disease, increased endostatin levels are possibly the consequence of enhanced extracellular matrix degradation. Thus, it may become an important marker for progressive microvascular renal disease in patients with chronic kidney disease. Endostatin levels in blood are also likely to increase in patients with other microvascular tissue injuries, including atherosclerosis, myocardial- and brain ischemia. In ischemic stroke patients, high endostatin plasma levels predict a worse long-term clinical outcome.

A team of researchers recently demonstrated that serial measurement of endostatin in plasma has useful predictive value for 30-day mortality in Acute Kidney Injury (AKI) patients after major surgery.

Prognostic value of dynamic plasma endostatin for the prediction of mortality in acute kidney injury: A prospective cohort study. Jia HM et al., J Int Med Res. 2020 48(7):300060520940856.. Full Text.

Related Products:
Endostatin ELISA Assay Kit
Endostatin Mouse/Rat ELISA Assay Kit

Anti-tTG sIgA/IgA ELISA Assay Kit

Eagle Biosciences is excited to announce the new Anti-tTG sIgA/IgA ELISA Assay Kit. This kit is intended for the quantitative determination of anti-human tissue transglutaminase sIgA/IgA in stool samples.

Assay Background

Celiac disease is a chronic illness of the small intestinal mucous membrane. The reason is an intolerance against gluten, which is found in many cereals. This food intolerance against cereal proteins leads to a production of auto-antibodies against tissue transglutaminase, which is the major antigen for endomysium antibodies.

The intake of gluten-containing food leads to an inflammation of the small intestinal mucous membrane, which results in a reduced absorption of nutrients. The symptoms of the disease are reduction of weight, diarrhea, vomitus, anorexia and tiredness. The growth of children is impaired. The characteristic of the symptoms might be different. The only therapeutic treatment is a gluten-free diet. A non-treated celiac disease increases the risk of non-Hodgkin-lymphoma and colon cancer. Celiac disease is associated with type 1 diabetes mellitus in five to ten percent of the patients. Women are more often affected than men. The outcome of the disease is pronounced during infancy and in ages between 30 and 40 years old.


  • Food Intolerance
  • Monitoring an Elimination Diet

Anti-tTG sIgA/IgA ELISA Assay Kit Advantages

  • Easy
  • Rapid
  • Precise
  • All reagents included

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dopamine elisa assay kit

The Eagle Biosciences’ Dopamine ELISA Assay Kit was used recently in a Parkinson study. This study aimed to explore the neuroprotective effect that tiron could have against MPTP-induced Parkinsonism. Read more about this study below.


Parkinsonism is a neurodegenerative disease that is common all over the world. This study aimed at exploring the neuroprotective effect of tiron against 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP)-induced Parkinsonism. MPTP (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [ip]) was injected in mice daily for 5 consecutive days. Mice were treated with tiron (140 and 280 mg/kg, ip) or levodopa (8.4 mg/kg, orally) for 10 consecutive days starting 5 days before MPTP injection. At the end of the experiment, behavioral tests were conducted to assess the neuroprotective effect of tiron. Moreover, oxidative stress was assessed via measuring antioxidant enzyme, such as catalase, and lipid peroxidation was evaluated as malondialdehyde. Neuronal damage was also detected by histopathological examination and via estimating hippocampal levels of dopamine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and nuclear factor erythroid-derived 2-like 2. In addition, the expression of Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 and heme oxygenase-1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Compared with the blank control group and the positive control group, the inhibitory effect of tiron on MPTP-induced neurodegenerative injury was statistically significant.

Mohamed SA, El-Kashef DH, Nader MA. Tiron Alleviates MPTP-Inceded Parkisonism in Mice Via Activation of Keap-1/Nrf2 Pathway. J Biochem Mol Toxicol. 2020;35:e22685.

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Dopamine ELISA Assay Kit
GABA (Gamma-Aminobutyric-Acid) ELISA Assay Kit
Serotonin ELISA Assay Kit

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