Prolactin ELISA Assay Kit
The Prolactin ELISA Assay Kit is For Research Use Only
Size: 1×96 wells
Sensitivity: 0.12 ng/ml
Dynamic Range: 5 -100 ng/ml
Incubation Time: 1.5 hour
Sample Type: Serum
Sample Size: 50 µL
Prolactin is a polypeptide hormone synthesized and secreted by the Adenohypophysis (anterior Pituitary gland) and the placenta. It is also produced in other tissues including the breast and the decidua. Pituitary prolactin secretion is regulated by neuroendocrine neurons in the hypothalamus, most importantly by neurosecretory dopamine neurons of the arcuate nucleus, which inhibit prolactin secretion.
Prolactin is present in several body fluids, including blood plasma, amniotic fluid, milk, mucosal secretions and cerebrospinal fluid.
Prolactin has many effects, the most important of which is to stimulate the mammary glands to produce milk (lactation). Other possible functions of prolactin include the surfactant synthesis of the fetal lungs at the end of the pregnancy and immune tolerance of the foetus by the maternal organism during pregnancy.
Prolactin may also have inhibitory effects on gonadal function when present in high concentrations. There is a diurnal cycle in prolactin secretion.
During pregnancy, high circulating concentrations of estrogen promote prolactin production. The resulting high levels of prolactin secretion cause maturation of the mammary glands, preparing them for lactation. After childbirth, prolactin levels fall as the internal stimulus for them is removed.
High prolactin levels also tend to suppress the ovulatory cycle by inhibiting the secretion of both FSH and GnRH.
Prolactin levels may be checked as part of a sex hormone workup, as elevated prolactin secretion can suppress the secretion of FSH and GnRH, leading to hypogonadism, and sometimes causing erectile dysfunction in men.
Elevations in plasma prolactin concentrations occur during ovulation, pregnancy, nursing and stress. Abnormal elevations in plasma prolactin levels (hyperprolactinemia) can occur as a result of pituitary adenomas, other anatomic and traumatic abnormalities, in response to certain pharmacologic agents and in hypothyroidism. Hypoprolactinemia (low prolactin levels) are observed in cases of hypopituitarism.