Type 1 diabetes, also known as insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus, results from a chronic autoimmune process which destructs the insulin-secreting pancreatic beta cells. Before the onset of disease T1D patients may demonstrate autoantibodies against different autoantigens of islet cells. Research indicates that these autoantibodies have been shown to be important markers for the identification of individuals with an increased risk to develop T1D at a time when all metabolic tests available still show normal results.
Islet cell autoantibodies detected by indirect immunofluorescence (IIF) have been the first serological markers described for T1D. This technique using tissue sections from human or primate pancreas, however, still reveals methodological problems, especially with regard to inter-laboratory standardization. After discovery of the two main protein antigens of ICA – the enzyme glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD65) and the islet cell protein IA2 – it has been possible to measure these specific autoantibodies by radioligand assays and recently by sensitive ELISA.
Risk assessment of T1D can be achieved by the combination of tests for these different autoantibodies. Therefore, the Eagle Biosciences ICA screen ELISA Assay kit – designed for the semiquantitative determination of ICA to enable reliable screening – was compared with IIF as the routine method for the detection of ICA.
The Eagle Biosciences ICA screen ELISA Assay Kit is a robust and sensitive tool for the detection of ICA. In comparison with established methods for the detection of ICA, this assay showed superior sensitivity. These data strongly support further investigation to confirm the better sensitivity of the ICA screen ELISA.