Nitrotyrosine ELISA Assay
Nitrotyrosine ELISA Assay manufactured in Germany by Immundiagnostik
Size: 1×96 wells
Standard Range: 55.6-1500 nM
Incubation Time: 2.5h, 1h, 10-20min
Sample Type: Stool, Serum, EDTA-Plasma
Sample Size: 100 mg (Stool); 50 µl (Ser.; Pl.)
For Research Use Only
Nitrotyrosine is the nitrated form of the amino acid tyrosine. The accumulation of protein bound nitrotyrosine is associated with cardiovascular diseases that are based on inflammatory processes (e. g., atherosclerosis, myocardial infarction, diabetic vasculopathy, hypertension, or coronary heart diseases). A growing number of studies have also associated the accumulation of nitrotyrosine with neurological diseases (Alzheimer´s disease, Parkinson´s disease, multiple sclerosis, stroke). With treatment of some of the associated diseases the levels of nitrated tyrosines have been shown to decrease, so nitrotyrosine has been stated to be a marker of nitrosative stress. During inflammatory processes, large amounts of nitric oxide ( •NO) are locally released from L-arginine. This reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme NO-synthase (NOS). Other causes for the increased •NO production are exposure to chemicals or heavy metals, drugs, nicotine, or physical and psychological stress, as well as extraordinary physical strain with increased oxygen consumption.
In high concentrations, •NO that is not trapped by mitochondrial superoxide dis-mutase (MnSOD) reacts with superoxide (•OO–) to form peroxynitrite (ONOO–). Per-oxynitrite is implicated as a key oxidant species in several pathologies and is known to be cytotoxic (nitrosative stress). Peroxinitrite is highly reactive and shows a high affinity to aromatic amino acids, e.g., to the phenolic ring of tyrosine. The nitration of tyrosine in general is a natural pro-cess within the post-translational protein modification. Nitrotyrosine is a stable product and might be seen as a correlate of peroxynitrite production, and its accumulation in cells and tissues is a marker of oxidative stress and nitrosative stress, respectively.