Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s Mouse/Rat Dopamine ELISA was utilized in a recent publication focusing on the beneficial consequences of probiotic on mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease. Check out the full text and abstract below.


Background

Abstract
Alzheimer’s (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, causing dementia and brain cells death. This study aimed to assess the ameliorating effect of Acidophilus probiotic against AD induced in rats by d-galactose and AlCl3 injection via evaluating mitochondrial parameter changes in hippocampus.

Methods
This study was carried out on rats were classified into five groups; G1 (control group), G2 (probiotic group), G3 (AD group), G4 (co-treated group) and G5 (post-treated group). By the end of the experiment, some different neurotransmitters, oxidative stress biomarkers, zinc, blood glucose, Na+K−ATPase subunit alpha 1 (ATP1A1), and gene expression of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured.

Results
Significant changes in neurotransmitters, antioxidants levels and decreased ATP1A1 activity and gene expression of MMP in the hippocampus in G3 were detected if compared to control. Best improvement in G5 than G4 group was observed. These results were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical studies in hippocampus.

Conclusions
Acidophilus probiotic was able to alleviate learning and memory associated injuries in AD by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction induced by d-galactose and AlCl3. This may be associated with its antioxidant properties.

Beltagy, D., Nawar, N., Mohamed, T., et al. Beneficial consequences of probiotic on mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, (2021).


If you have any questions about the Mouse/Rat Dopamine ELISA or our other offerings, please contact us here.

Lipid peroxidation is a well-established mechanism of cellular injury in both plants and animals and is used as an indicator of oxidative stress in cells and tissues. Lipid peroxides are unstable and decompose to form a complex series of compounds including reactive carbonyl compounds. Polyunsaturated fatty acid peroxides generate malondialdehyde (MDA) and 4-hydroxyalkenals (HAE) upon decomposition. The measurement of MDA and HAE has been used as an indicator of lipid peroxidation (1).

A study was published in the journal Life Sciences, on the role vanillin plays as either prophylaxis or treatment in liver regeneration augmentation. Check out the full text here. 


Abstract

Aims
This study has been designed to investigate the role of vanillin either as prophylaxis or treatment in liver regeneration augmentation and liver fibrosis regression in thioacetamide (TAA) induced liver damage.

Materials and Methods
Animals were injected with TAA to induce liver injury (200 mg/kg twice weekly) for 8 weeks. In vanillin prophylaxis group; rats were administered vanillin (100 mg/Kg; IP, daily) from day 1 of TAA injection for 8 weeks. In vanillin treatment group; rats were confronted with the same dose of TAA injection for 8 weeks then treated with vanillin (100 mg/Kg, IP, daily) for 4 weeks. ALT, AST activities, serum albumin, hepatic GSH, MDA, HGF, VEGF, IL-6 and TNF-α levels were measured and also, MMP-2, TIMP-1 and cyclin D gene expression were determined. Liver sections were stained with H&E and Sirius red and immunostained for Ki-67 and α-SMA for histological and immunohistological changes analysis.

Key Findings
Vanillin improved liver function and histology. Also, showed a remarkable increase in hepatic HGF and VEGF level, and up-regulation of cyclin D1 expression accompanied by a significant up-regulation of MMP-2 and down- regulation of TIMP-1. All these effects were accompanied by TNF-α, IL-6 and oxidative stress significant attenuation.

Significance
In conclusion, vanillin enhanced liver regeneration in TAA-induced liver damage model; targeting growth factors (HGF, VEGF) and cellular proliferation marker cyclin D1. As well as stimulating fibrosis regression by inhibition of ECM accumulation and enhancing its degradation.


About the Lipid Peroxidase Assay

Sample Type: Biological Fluids
Sample Size: 140 µl
Incubation Time: 3 hours


If you have any questions on the Lipid Peroxidase Assay or our other offerings, please contact us here.

Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s easYmer HLA-A*01:01 MHC Tetramers Kit was highlighted in a recent publication that focused on emerging enterococcus pore-forming toxins with MHC/HLA-I as receptors. Check out the abstract and full article below.


Abstract

Enterococci are a part of human microbiota and a leading cause of multidrug resistant infections. Here, we identify a family of Enterococcus pore-forming toxins (Epxs) in E. faecalis, E. faecium, and E. hirae strains isolated across the globe. Structural studies reveal that Epxs form a branch of β-barrel pore-forming toxins with a β-barrel protrusion (designated the top domain) sitting atop the cap domain. Through a genome-wide CRISPR-Cas9 screen, we identify human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) complex as a receptor for two members (Epx2 and Epx3), which preferentially recognize human HLA-I and homologous MHC-I of equine, bovine, and porcine, but not murine, origin. Interferon exposure, which stimulates MHC-I expression, sensitizes human cells and intestinal organoids to Epx2 and Epx3 toxicity. Co-culture with Epx2-harboring E. faecium damages human peripheral blood mononuclear cells and intestinal organoids, and this toxicity is neutralized by an Epx2 antibody, demonstrating the toxin-mediated virulence of Epx-carrying Enterococcus.

Xiong X., Songhai T., Yang Pan., et al. Emerging enterococcus pore-forming toxins with MHC/HLA-I as receptors. Cell. (2022) vol. 185 7:1157-1171. 10.1016/j.cell.2022.02.002


If you have any questions about the easYmer HLA-A*01:01 MHC Tetramers Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.

Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s Serotonin ELISA Assay Kit was utilized in a recent publication focusing on the beneficial consequences of probiotics on the mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease. Check out the full text and article below.


Background

Abstract
Alzheimer’s (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases, causing dementia and brain cells death.

Objectives
This study aimed to assess the ameliorating effect of Acidophilus probiotic against AD induced in rats by d-galactose and AlCl3 injection via evaluating mitochondrial parameter changes in hippocampus.

Methods
This study was carried out on rats were classified into five groups; G1 (control group), G2 (probiotic group), G3 (AD group), G4 (co-treated group) and G5 (post-treated group). By the end of the experiment, some different neurotransmitters, oxidative stress biomarkers, zinc, blood glucose, Na+K−ATPase subunit alpha 1 (ATP1A1), and gene expression of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) were measured.

Results
Significant changes in neurotransmitters, antioxidants levels and decreased ATP1A1 activity and gene expression of MMP in the hippocampus in G3 were detected if compared to control. Best improvement in G5 than G4 group was observed. These results were confirmed by histological and immunohistochemical studies in hippocampus.

Conclusions
Acidophilus probiotic was able to alleviate learning and memory associated injuries in AD by reducing mitochondrial dysfunction induced by d-galactose and AlCl3. This may be associated with its antioxidant properties.

Beltagy, D., Nawar, N., Mohamed, T., et al. Beneficial consequences of probiotic on mitochondrial hippocampus in Alzheimer’s disease. Journal of Complementary and Integrative Medicine, (2021).


If you have any questions about the Serotonin ELISA Assay Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.

Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s ASCA IgG ELISA Kit was highlighted in a recent publication. The aim of this study was to validate an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) in diabetic patients with foot ulcers, after treatment. Check out the abstract and full article below.


Abstract

This work describes the validation of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for detection of anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) in diabetic patients with foot ulcers, after the treatment with Heberprot-P®. Validation followed regulatory guidelines of US FDA and European Medicine Agency. Minimum required dilution of samples and quality controls were defined using pools of sera from diabetic patients and from healthy donors. Parameters such as cut point, specificity, precision, selectivity, robustness and sample stability were analyzed. The repeatability and intermediate precision percent ranged between 7.93-10.61% and 7.93-11.43 %, respectively, indicating low intra- and inter-assay variation. The specificity was proved by background noise suppression, reaching 100% of inhibition as strong criterion for the specificity of the immunoassay. The validated ELISA is a reliable tool for ASCA detection in human serum after the administration of Heberprot-P®, in order to find immunological reactions associated with latent contamination by host cell proteins from Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

Perez-Bernal M., Hernandez C., Delgado M., et al. ELISA validation approach for the detection of anti-saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies in patients treated with biopharmaceutical heberprot-P. J. Anal. Pharm. Res. (2021) 10(2):50-56.


If you have any questions about the ASCA IgG ELISA Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.

Dopamine Sensitive ELISA Assay Utilized in Recent Publication

The Eagle Bioscience’s Serotonin ELISA Assay Kit was highlighted in a recent publication on the selective, ultra-sensitive, and rapid detection of serotonin by an optimized ZnO Nanorod FET biosensor. Check out the abstract and full article below.


Abstract

Background: Fluctuation in serotonin (5-HT) level is an essential manifestation of several neurological disorders. In view of such importance, it is necessary to monitor the levels of 5-HT with good sensitivity, selectivity, affordability and low response time. Zinc oxide (ZnO) based field effect transistors (FET) with attributes like minimized noise levels and large on-off ratio are regarded as emerging high performance biosensor platforms. However, their response is significantly non-linear and there has been no appreciable endeavor for improving the non-linearity. Method: In this paper, we have introduced embedded gate electrode encompassing the channel of the FET which improves the uniformity in electric field line distribution through the electrolyte and proportionately enhances the capture of target biomolecule at ultra-low concentrations, thereby increasing the linearity. Further, we have incorporated the optimized parameters of ZnO nanorods reported previously, for rapid and selective detection of 5-HT. Results: It has been observed that the fabricated ZnO FET biosensor lowers the detection limit down to 0.1fM which is at least one order of magnitude lower than the existing reports. The sensor also has wide linear range from 0.1fM to 1nM with a detection time of about 20 minutes. Conclusion: The proposed zinc oxide nanorod-based sensor can be used as an excellent tool for future diagnosis of neurological disorders.

Sinha K., Chakraborty B., Chaudhury S.S., et al. Selective, Ultra-sensitive and Rapid Detection of Serotonin by Optimized ZnO Nanorod FET Biosensor. IEEE Transactions on NanoBioscience.


If you have any questions about the Serotonin ELISA Assay Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.

The Secretory Leukocyte Peptidase Inhibitor Protein (SLPI) is a secreted inhibitor that protects epithelial tissues from serine proteases. It is found in various secretions including seminal plasma, cervical mucus, and bronchial secretions, and has an affinity for trypsin, leukocyte elastase, and cathepsin G. Its inhibitory effect contributes to the immune response by protecting epithelial surfaces from attack by endogenous proteolytic enzymes. The SLPI protein is also thought to have broad-spectrum antibiotic activity.

SLPI has been known by many names, including Antileukoproteinase protein, ALP Protein, ALK1 protein, BLPI protein, HUSI protein, HUSI-I protein, MPI protein, WAP4 protein, WFDC4 protein.

A study was published from Acta Biomaterialia, on oral junctional epithelium for surface-mediated soft tissue attachment to prevent failure of percutaneous devices.  Check out the full text article here.


Abstract

Teeth, long-lasting percutaneous organs, feature soft tissue attachment through adhesive structures, hemidesmosomes, in the junctional epithelium basement membrane adjacent to teeth. This soft tissue attachment prevents bacterial infection of the tooth despite the rich – and harsh – microbial composition of the oral cavity. Conversely, millions of percutaneous devices (catheters, dental, and orthopedic implants) fail from infection yearly. Standard of care antibiotic usage fuels antimicrobial resistance and is frequently ineffective. Infection prevention strategies, like for dental implants, have failed in generating durable soft tissue adhesion – like that seen with the tooth – to prevent bacterial colonization at the tissue-device interface. Here, inspired by the impervious natural attachment of the junctional epithelium to teeth, we synthesized four cell adhesion peptide (CAPs) nanocoatings, derived from basement membranes, to promote percutaneous device soft tissue attachment. The two leading nanocoatings upregulated integrin-mediated hemidesmosomes, selectively increased keratinocyte proliferation compared to fibroblasts, which cannot form hemidesmosomes, and expression of junctional epithelium adhesive markers. CAP nanocoatings displayed marked durability under simulated clinical conditions and the top performer CAP nanocoating was validated in a percutaneous implant murine model. Basement membrane CAP nanocoatings, inspired by the tooth and junctional epithelium, may provide an alternative anti-infective strategy for percutaneous devices to mitigate the worldwide threat of antimicrobial resistance.


About the SLPI Protein ELISA Assay

  • Sample Size – 50 µL
  • Sample Type – Serum
  • Incubation Time – 2.5 hours

If you have any questions about this product or our other offerings, contact us here.

The Eagle Bioscience’s Noradrenaline Sensitive ELISA was highlighted in a recent publication on how brain injuries instruct bone marrow cellular lineage destination to reduce neuroinflammation. Check out the abstract and full article below.


Abstract

Acute brain injury mobilizes circulating leukocytes to transmigrate into the perivascular space and brain parenchyma. This process amplifies neural injury. Bone marrow hematopoiesis replenishes the exhausted peripheral leukocyte pools. However, it is not known whether brain injury influences the development of bone marrow lineages and how altered hematopoietic cell lineages affect neurological outcome. Here, we showed that bone marrow hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) can be swiftly skewed toward the myeloid lineage in patients with intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) and experimental ICH models. Lineage tracing revealed a predominantly augmented hematopoiesis of Ly6Clow monocytes infiltrating the ICH brain, where they generated alternatively activated macrophages and suppressed neuroinflammation and brain injury. The ICH brain uses β3-adrenergic innervation that involves cell division cycle 42 to promote bone marrow hematopoiesis of Ly6Clow monocytes, which could be further potentiated by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration-approved β3-adrenergic agonist mirabegron. Our results suggest that brain injury modulates HSC lineage development to curb distal brain inflammation, implicating the bone marrow as a unique niche for self-protective neuroimmune interaction that might be exploited to obtain therapeutic effects.

Shi, SX., Shi, K., Liu, Q. Brain injury instructs bone marrow cellular lineage destination to reduce neuroinflammation. Science Translational Medicine. (2021)13:589.


If you have any questions about the Noradrenaline Sensitive ELISA or our other offerings, please contact us here.

The Eagle Bioscience’s Glutathione Total Assay Kit was highlighted in a recent publication on the protective effects of perindopril against indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage through modulation of DDAH-1/ADMA and ACE-2/ANG-(1-7) signaling pathways. Check out the abstract and full article below.


Abstract

Indomethacin is a widely used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug; however, its clinical utility is accompanied by serious adverse reactions including peptic ulcers. The current study aims to investigate the protective potential of perindopril against indomethacin-induced gastric injury in rats. Perindopril (4 mg/kg) was administered orally for 7 days and indomethacin (60 mg/kg, single oral dose) was administered on the 7th day, 1 h after perindopril administration. Pantoprazole was used as a standard agent. Ulcer index (UI), preventive index ratio (PI), histopathological examination, oxidative stress, and inflammatory biomarkers were investigated. Perindopril significantly decreased UI while increased PI and counteracted histopathological aberrations induced by indomethacin. It alleviated indomethacin-induced oxidative stress by lowering NO while increasing GSH content and superoxide dismutase activity. Perindopril significantly downregulated TNF-α and asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA), while significantly upregulated COX-2, PGE-2, dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase-1 (DDAH-1), ANG-(1-7), and ACE-2 expression. Together, these findings suggest the gastroprotective effects of perindopril through modulation of DDAH-1/ADMA and ACE-2/ANG-(1-7) signaling.

HIGHLIGHTS

  • Perindopril attenuated gastric histopathological damage.
  • It increased GSH content and SOD activity while decreased NO content.
  • It modulated gastric ADMA and DDAH-1 activity.
  • It reduced TNF-α, while increased COX-2 and PGE-2 expression.
  • It upregulated ACE-2 activity and ANG-(1-7) protein expression.

Mohamed Y.T., Naguib I.A., Abo-Saif A.A., Mohamed W.R. Protective effects of perindopril against indomethacin-induced gastric mucosal damage through modulation of DDAH-1/ADMA and ACE-2/ANG-(1-7) signaling pathways. Drug Chem. Toxicol. (2021).


If you have any questions about the Glutathione Total Assay Kit or our other offerings, please contact us here.

The Eagle Bioscience’s Coronavirus COVID-19 IgG ELISA Assay was recently highlighted in a publication on the decline of Sars-CoV-2 antibodies over 6-month follow-up in obstetrical healthcare workers (HCW). Researchers investigated the longitudinal presence of serum Sars-CoV-2 specific antibodies for both Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) in obstetrical HCWs at a tertiary hospital. Check out the full article below.


Abstract

The Problem

Limited data exists on the temporal trend of the Sars-CoV-2 immunologic response and duration of protection following natural infection. We sought to investigate the presence and duration of Sars-CoV-2 serum antibodies in obstetrical healthcare workers (HCW) on serial assessments over a 6-month period, and to assess rates of vaccine acceptance and reported vaccine side effects among this cohort.

Method of Study

A prospective cohort study of a convenience sample of obstetrical HCWs at a tertiary hospital. Serum Sars-CoV-2 antibodies for Immunoglobulin G (IgG) and Immunoglobulin M (IgM) were measured longitudinally at four intervals: baseline, 4 weeks, 12 weeks, and 6 months. Participants completed voluntary surveys on COVID19 testing, high-risk exposures, vaccine acceptance, and vaccine side effects.

Results

One hundred twenty-six of 150 (84%) HCWs who volunteered for participation completed all four blood draws. Prevalence of seropositive HCWs based on positive Sars-CoV-2 IgG antibodies increased from 2% at baseline to 31% at 12 weeks but declined to 21% by 6 months. Forty-two percent (19/43) of the participants considered seropositive for Sars-CoV-2 IgG antibodies at any of the initial three blood draws converted to seronegative status at the 6-month follow-up. Eighty-seven percent (72/83) of participants who responded to a follow-up survey were willing to accept the COVID19 vaccine. Rates of acceptance did not differ by participant antibody status. Those that experienced symptoms with the first injection were more likely to have positive Sars-CoV-2 IgG antibodies (36.8% vs. 9.6%, p = .01).

Conclusion

Sars-CoV-2 IgG antibodies wane over time and may not provide prolonged and robust immune protection. This underscores the importance of vaccination and continued research in this area while the COVID19 pandemic continues.

Kiefer M.K., Allen K.D., Russo J.R., et al. Decline in Sars-CoV-2 antibodies over 6-month follow-up in obstetrical healthcare workers. Am. J. Reprod. Immunol. (2021)


If you have any questions about the Coronavirus COVID-19 IgG ELISA Assay or our other offerings, please contact us here.